Skip to main content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research 6/2019

26-04-2019 | Original Article

Imagery Rescripting of Aversive Autobiographical Memories: Effects on Memory Distress, Emotions, and Feelings of Mastery

Auteurs: Miriam Strohm, Marena Siegesleitner, Anna E. Kunze, Thomas Ehring, Charlotte E. Wittekind

Gepubliceerd in: Cognitive Therapy and Research | Uitgave 6/2019

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Imagery rescripting (ImRs) has been shown to be a promising intervention for aversive emotional memories, but research on underlying mechanisms is only in its beginnings. Previous analogue studies on ImRs were mainly based on the trauma film paradigm, but the personal relevance of film-induced memories is limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of ImRs on personally relevant autobiographical memories. Sixty-five participants who had experienced a distressing life-event were randomly assigned to ImRs or no-intervention control (NIC). ImRs led to less intrusive memories than NIC during the 1-week follow-up period, but was not superior in reducing overall event-related stress symptoms. When retrieving the memory after 1 week, ImRs participants reported greater reductions in sadness and distress, and higher feelings of mastery. Findings underline the potential of the paradigm used in this study to test memory processes involved in ImRs. Limitations and modifications of the paradigm are discussed.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Voetnoten
1
One of these participants withdrew their consent for the study and therefore no data is available. When including the remaining two participants in analyses of Session 1 (manipulation check and exploratory analyses) results remained unchanged.
 
2
As this is (to the best of our knowledge) the first controlled study investigating longer-term effects of ImRs on distressing autobiographical memories in a non-clinical sample, the assumed effect sizes could not be based on previously reported findings. We conservatively adjusted large effect sizes from clinical ImRs-studies (Morina et al. 2017) to small to medium effect sizes for our study.
 
3
Results of exploratory analyses on the other five emotions revealed that ImRs was superior to NIC in decreasing anger and guilt. Both conditions equally reduced shame. No changes were observed for disgust and anxiety. Detailed results are provided in Table A.2 and A.3 in the Supplementary Material.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Ackenheil, M., Stotz, G., Dietz-Bauer, R., & Vossen, A. (1999). Mini international neuropsychiatric interview— German version 5.0.0. München, Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik München. Ackenheil, M., Stotz, G., Dietz-Bauer, R., & Vossen, A. (1999). Mini international neuropsychiatric interviewGerman version 5.0.0. München, Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik München.
go back to reference Alberini, C. M. (2011). The role of reconsolidation and the dynamic process of long-term memory formation and storage. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 5, 1–10. Alberini, C. M. (2011). The role of reconsolidation and the dynamic process of long-term memory formation and storage. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 5, 1–10.
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. CrossRef American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. CrossRef
go back to reference Arnaudova, I., & Hagenaars, M. A. (2017). Lights … action: Comparison of trauma films for use in the trauma film paradigm. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 93, 67–77. PubMed Arnaudova, I., & Hagenaars, M. A. (2017). Lights … action: Comparison of trauma films for use in the trauma film paradigm. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 93, 67–77. PubMed
go back to reference Arntz, A. (2011). Imagery rescripting for personality disorders. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 18, 466–481. Arntz, A. (2011). Imagery rescripting for personality disorders. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 18, 466–481.
go back to reference Arntz, A. (2012). Imagery rescripting as a therapeutic technique: Review of clinical trials, basic studies, and research agenda. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3, 189–208. Arntz, A. (2012). Imagery rescripting as a therapeutic technique: Review of clinical trials, basic studies, and research agenda. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3, 189–208.
go back to reference Arntz, A. (2015). Imagery rescripting for posttraumatic stress disorder. In N. C. Thoma & D. McKay (Eds.), Working with emotion in cognitive-behavioral therapy (pp. 203–215). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Arntz, A. (2015). Imagery rescripting for posttraumatic stress disorder. In N. C. Thoma & D. McKay (Eds.), Working with emotion in cognitive-behavioral therapy (pp. 203–215). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
go back to reference Arntz, A., Tiesema, M., & Kindt, M. (2007). Treatment of PTSD: a comparison of imaginal exposure with and without imagery rescripting. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38, 345–370. PubMed Arntz, A., Tiesema, M., & Kindt, M. (2007). Treatment of PTSD: a comparison of imaginal exposure with and without imagery rescripting. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38, 345–370. PubMed
go back to reference Arntz, A., & Weertman, A. (1999). Treatment of childhood memories: Theory and practice. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 715–740. PubMed Arntz, A., & Weertman, A. (1999). Treatment of childhood memories: Theory and practice. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 715–740. PubMed
go back to reference Beckers, T., & Kindt, M. (2017). Memory reconsolidation interference as an emerging treatment for emotional disorders: Strengths, limitations, challenges and opportunities. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 13, 15. Beckers, T., & Kindt, M. (2017). Memory reconsolidation interference as an emerging treatment for emotional disorders: Strengths, limitations, challenges and opportunities. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 13, 15.
go back to reference Brewin, C. R. (2006). Understanding cognitive behavior therapy: A retrieval competition account. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 765–784. PubMed Brewin, C. R. (2006). Understanding cognitive behavior therapy: A retrieval competition account. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 765–784. PubMed
go back to reference Çili, S., Pettit, S., & Stopa, L. (2016). Impact of imagery rescripting on adverse self-defining memories and post-recall working selves in a non-clinical sample: A pilot study. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 46, 75–89. PubMed Çili, S., Pettit, S., & Stopa, L. (2016). Impact of imagery rescripting on adverse self-defining memories and post-recall working selves in a non-clinical sample: A pilot study. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 46, 75–89. PubMed
go back to reference Dibbets, P., & Arntz, A. (2016). Imagery rescripting: Is incorporation of the most aversive scenes necessary? Memory, 24, 683–695. PubMed Dibbets, P., & Arntz, A. (2016). Imagery rescripting: Is incorporation of the most aversive scenes necessary? Memory, 24, 683–695. PubMed
go back to reference Dibbets, P., Poort, H., & Arntz, A. (2012). Adding imagery rescripting during extinction leads to less ABA renewal. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43, 614–624. PubMed Dibbets, P., Poort, H., & Arntz, A. (2012). Adding imagery rescripting during extinction leads to less ABA renewal. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43, 614–624. PubMed
go back to reference Dibbets, P., & Schulte-Ostermann, M. A. (2015). Virtual reality, real emotions: A novel analogue for the assessment of risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 681. PubMedPubMedCentral Dibbets, P., & Schulte-Ostermann, M. A. (2015). Virtual reality, real emotions: A novel analogue for the assessment of risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 681. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Germain, A., Krakow, B., Faucher, B., Zadra, A., Nielsen, T., Hollifield, M., et al. (2004). Increased mastery elements associated with imagery rehearsal treatment for nightmares in sexual assault survivors with PTSD. Dreaming, 14, 195–206. Germain, A., Krakow, B., Faucher, B., Zadra, A., Nielsen, T., Hollifield, M., et al. (2004). Increased mastery elements associated with imagery rehearsal treatment for nightmares in sexual assault survivors with PTSD. Dreaming, 14, 195–206.
go back to reference Grunert, B. K., Weis, J. M., Smucker, M. R., & Christianson, H. F. (2007). Imagery rescripting and reprocessing therapy after failed prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder following industrial injury. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38, 317–328. PubMed Grunert, B. K., Weis, J. M., Smucker, M. R., & Christianson, H. F. (2007). Imagery rescripting and reprocessing therapy after failed prolonged exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder following industrial injury. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38, 317–328. PubMed
go back to reference Hagenaars, M. A., & Arntz, A. (2012). Reduced intrusion development after post-trauma imagery rescripting: An experimental study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43, 808–814. PubMed Hagenaars, M. A., & Arntz, A. (2012). Reduced intrusion development after post-trauma imagery rescripting: An experimental study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43, 808–814. PubMed
go back to reference Holmes, E. A., Arntz, A., & Smucker, M. R. (2007). Imagery rescripting in cognitive behaviour therapy: Images, treatment techniques and outcomes. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38, 297–305. PubMed Holmes, E. A., Arntz, A., & Smucker, M. R. (2007). Imagery rescripting in cognitive behaviour therapy: Images, treatment techniques and outcomes. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38, 297–305. PubMed
go back to reference Holmes, E. A., & Bourne, C. (2008). Inducing and modulating intrusive emotional memories: A review of the trauma film paradigm. Acta Psychologica, 127, 553–566. PubMed Holmes, E. A., & Bourne, C. (2008). Inducing and modulating intrusive emotional memories: A review of the trauma film paradigm. Acta Psychologica, 127, 553–566. PubMed
go back to reference Holmes, E. A., Brewin, C. R., & Hennessy, R. G. (2004). Trauma films, information processing, and intrusive memory development. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 133, 3–22. PubMed Holmes, E. A., Brewin, C. R., & Hennessy, R. G. (2004). Trauma films, information processing, and intrusive memory development. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 133, 3–22. PubMed
go back to reference Holmes, E. A., & Mathews, A. (2010). Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 349–362. Holmes, E. A., & Mathews, A. (2010). Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 349–362.
go back to reference James, E. L., Bonsall, M. B., Hoppitt, L., Tunbridge, E. M., Geddes, J. R., Milton, A. L., et al. (2015). Computer game play reduces intrusive memories of experimental trauma via reconsolidation-update mechanisms. Psychological Science, 26, 1201–1215. PubMedPubMedCentral James, E. L., Bonsall, M. B., Hoppitt, L., Tunbridge, E. M., Geddes, J. R., Milton, A. L., et al. (2015). Computer game play reduces intrusive memories of experimental trauma via reconsolidation-update mechanisms. Psychological Science, 26, 1201–1215. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference James, E. L., Lau-Zhu, A., Clark, I. A., Visser, R. M., Hagenaars, M. A., & Holmes, E. A. (2016). The trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of psychological trauma: Intrusive memories and beyond. Clinical Psychology Review, 47, 106–142. PubMed James, E. L., Lau-Zhu, A., Clark, I. A., Visser, R. M., Hagenaars, M. A., & Holmes, E. A. (2016). The trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of psychological trauma: Intrusive memories and beyond. Clinical Psychology Review, 47, 106–142. PubMed
go back to reference Kazdin, A. E. (2009). Understanding how and why psychotherapy leads to change. Psychotherapy Research, 19, 418–428. PubMed Kazdin, A. E. (2009). Understanding how and why psychotherapy leads to change. Psychotherapy Research, 19, 418–428. PubMed
go back to reference Krohne, H. W., Egloff, B., Kohlmann, C.-W., & Tausch, A. (1996). Untersuchungen mit einer deutschen Version der “Positive and Negative Affect Schedule” (PANAS) [Investigations with a German version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)]. Diagnostica, 42, 139–156. Krohne, H. W., Egloff, B., Kohlmann, C.-W., & Tausch, A. (1996). Untersuchungen mit einer deutschen Version der “Positive and Negative Affect Schedule” (PANAS) [Investigations with a German version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)]. Diagnostica, 42, 139–156.
go back to reference Kunze, A. E., Lancee, J., Morina, N., Kindt, M., & Arntz, A. (2016). Efficacy and mechanisms of imagery rescripting and imaginal exposure for nightmares: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 17, 469. PubMedPubMedCentral Kunze, A. E., Lancee, J., Morina, N., Kindt, M., & Arntz, A. (2016). Efficacy and mechanisms of imagery rescripting and imaginal exposure for nightmares: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 17, 469. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Kunze, A. E., Lancee, J., Morina, N., Kindt, M., & Arntz, A. (2019). Mediators of change in imagery rescripting and imaginal exposure for nightmares: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial. Behavior Therapy. Kunze, A. E., Lancee, J., Morina, N., Kindt, M., & Arntz, A. (2019). Mediators of change in imagery rescripting and imaginal exposure for nightmares: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial. Behavior Therapy.
go back to reference Lee, C. W., & Cuijpers, P. (2013). A meta-analysis of the contribution of eye movements in processing emotional memories. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 44, 231–239. PubMed Lee, C. W., & Cuijpers, P. (2013). A meta-analysis of the contribution of eye movements in processing emotional memories. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 44, 231–239. PubMed
go back to reference Long, M. E., & Quevillon, R. (2009). Imagery rescripting in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 67–76. Long, M. E., & Quevillon, R. (2009). Imagery rescripting in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 67–76.
go back to reference Maercker, A., & Schützwohl, M. (1998). Erfassung von psychischen Belastungsfolgen: Die Impact of Event Skala-revidierte Version (IES-R) [Assessment of post-traumatic stress reactions: The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R)]. Diagnostica, 44, 130–141. Maercker, A., & Schützwohl, M. (1998). Erfassung von psychischen Belastungsfolgen: Die Impact of Event Skala-revidierte Version (IES-R) [Assessment of post-traumatic stress reactions: The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R)]. Diagnostica, 44, 130–141.
go back to reference McEvoy, P. M., Erceg-Hurn, D. M., Saulsman, L. M., & Thibodeau, M. A. (2015). Imagery enhancements increase the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural group therapy for social anxiety disorder: A benchmarking study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 65, 42–51. PubMed McEvoy, P. M., Erceg-Hurn, D. M., Saulsman, L. M., & Thibodeau, M. A. (2015). Imagery enhancements increase the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural group therapy for social anxiety disorder: A benchmarking study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 65, 42–51. PubMed
go back to reference Morina, N., Lancee, J., & Arntz, A. (2017). Imagery rescripting as a clinical intervention for aversive memories: A meta-analysis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 55, 6–15. PubMed Morina, N., Lancee, J., & Arntz, A. (2017). Imagery rescripting as a clinical intervention for aversive memories: A meta-analysis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 55, 6–15. PubMed
go back to reference Nilsson, J., Lundh, L., & Viborg, G. (2012). Imagery rescripting of early memories in social anxiety disorder: An experimental study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 387–392. PubMed Nilsson, J., Lundh, L., & Viborg, G. (2012). Imagery rescripting of early memories in social anxiety disorder: An experimental study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50, 387–392. PubMed
go back to reference Reimer, S. G., & Moscovitch, D. A. (2015). The impact of imagery rescripting on memory appraisals and core beliefs in social anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 75, 48–59. PubMed Reimer, S. G., & Moscovitch, D. A. (2015). The impact of imagery rescripting on memory appraisals and core beliefs in social anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 75, 48–59. PubMed
go back to reference Rothbaum, B. O., & Schwartz, A. C. (2002). Exposure therapy in posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 56, 59–75. PubMed Rothbaum, B. O., & Schwartz, A. C. (2002). Exposure therapy in posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 56, 59–75. PubMed
go back to reference Scheveneels, S., Boddez, Y., Vervliet, B., & Hermans, D. (2016). The validity of laboratory-based treatment research: Bridging the gap between fear extinction and exposure treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 86, 87–94. PubMed Scheveneels, S., Boddez, Y., Vervliet, B., & Hermans, D. (2016). The validity of laboratory-based treatment research: Bridging the gap between fear extinction and exposure treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 86, 87–94. PubMed
go back to reference Schiller, D., Monfils, M., Raio, C., Johnson, D. C., LeDoux, J. E., & Phelps, E. A. (2010). Preventing the return of fear in humans using reconsolidation update mechanisms. Nature, 463, 49–53. PubMed Schiller, D., Monfils, M., Raio, C., Johnson, D. C., LeDoux, J. E., & Phelps, E. A. (2010). Preventing the return of fear in humans using reconsolidation update mechanisms. Nature, 463, 49–53. PubMed
go back to reference Schwabe, L., Nader, K., & Pruessner, J. C. (2014). Reconsolidation of human memory: Brain mechanisms and clinical relevance. Biological Psychiatry, 76, 274–280. PubMed Schwabe, L., Nader, K., & Pruessner, J. C. (2014). Reconsolidation of human memory: Brain mechanisms and clinical relevance. Biological Psychiatry, 76, 274–280. PubMed
go back to reference Seebauer, L., Froß, S., Dubaschny, L., Schönberger, M., & Jacob, G. A. (2014). Is it dangerous to fantasize revenge in imagery exercises? An experimental study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 45, 20–25. PubMed Seebauer, L., Froß, S., Dubaschny, L., Schönberger, M., & Jacob, G. A. (2014). Is it dangerous to fantasize revenge in imagery exercises? An experimental study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 45, 20–25. PubMed
go back to reference Sheehan, D. V., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, K. H., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., et al. (1998). The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(suppl 20), 22–33. PubMed Sheehan, D. V., Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, K. H., Amorim, P., Janavs, J., Weiller, E., et al. (1998). The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(suppl 20), 22–33. PubMed
go back to reference Siegesleitner, M., Strohm, M., Wittekind, C. E., Ehring, T., & Kunze, A. E. (2019). Effects of imagery rescripting on consolidated memories of an aversive film. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 62, 22–29. PubMed Siegesleitner, M., Strohm, M., Wittekind, C. E., Ehring, T., & Kunze, A. E. (2019). Effects of imagery rescripting on consolidated memories of an aversive film. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 62, 22–29. PubMed
go back to reference Slofstra, C., Nauta, M. H., Holmes, E. A., & Bockting, C. L. H. (2016). Imagery Rescripting: The impact of conceptual and perceptual changes on aversive autobiographical memories. PLoS ONE, 11(8), e0160235. PubMedPubMedCentral Slofstra, C., Nauta, M. H., Holmes, E. A., & Bockting, C. L. H. (2016). Imagery Rescripting: The impact of conceptual and perceptual changes on aversive autobiographical memories. PLoS ONE, 11(8), e0160235. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Van den Hout, M. A., Engelhard, I. M., & McNally, R. J. (2017). Thoughts on experimental psychopathology. Psychopathology Review, 4, 141–154. Van den Hout, M. A., Engelhard, I. M., & McNally, R. J. (2017). Thoughts on experimental psychopathology. Psychopathology Review, 4, 141–154.
go back to reference Van den Hout, M., Muris, P., Salemink, E., & Kindt, M. (2001). Autobiographical memories become less vivid and emotional after eye movements. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 121–130. PubMed Van den Hout, M., Muris, P., Salemink, E., & Kindt, M. (2001). Autobiographical memories become less vivid and emotional after eye movements. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 121–130. PubMed
go back to reference Vervliet, B., & Raes, F. (2013). Criteria of validity in experimental psychopathology: Application to models of anxiety and depression. Psychological Medicine, 43, 2241–2244. PubMed Vervliet, B., & Raes, F. (2013). Criteria of validity in experimental psychopathology: Application to models of anxiety and depression. Psychological Medicine, 43, 2241–2244. PubMed
go back to reference Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.
go back to reference Weiss, D. S., & Marmar, C. R. (1997). The Impact of Event Scale—Revised. In J. P. Wilson & T. M. Keane (Eds.), Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD (pp. 399–411). New York: Guilford. Weiss, D. S., & Marmar, C. R. (1997). The Impact of Event Scale—Revised. In J. P. Wilson & T. M. Keane (Eds.), Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD (pp. 399–411). New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Wild, J., & Clark, D. M. (2011). Imagery rescripting of early traumatic memories in social phobia. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 18, 433–443. PubMedPubMedCentral Wild, J., & Clark, D. M. (2011). Imagery rescripting of early traumatic memories in social phobia. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 18, 433–443. PubMedPubMedCentral
Metagegevens
Titel
Imagery Rescripting of Aversive Autobiographical Memories: Effects on Memory Distress, Emotions, and Feelings of Mastery
Auteurs
Miriam Strohm
Marena Siegesleitner
Anna E. Kunze
Thomas Ehring
Charlotte E. Wittekind
Publicatiedatum
26-04-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Cognitive Therapy and Research / Uitgave 6/2019
Print ISSN: 0147-5916
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2819
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-019-10021-2

Andere artikelen Uitgave 6/2019

Cognitive Therapy and Research 6/2019 Naar de uitgave