Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
To examine the illness perceptions of informal carers of persons with depression, using the theoretical framework of Leventhal’s Common-Sense Model (CSM) and to determine whether these illness perceptions are predictors of anxiety and depression, as measures of psychological well-being.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 94 Maltese individuals caring for a person with depression within a community setting. The informal carers completed the modified Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQS-Relatives version) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Spearman’s rank order correlations and ANCOVA regression models, to identify predictors of anxiety and depression respectively in the informal carers.
The informal carers perceived depression as a cyclical condition, having negative consequences on both the patient and on themselves. Participants perceived the causes of depression to be mainly psychosocial in nature and generally viewed the treatment as effective. Caring for a person with depression was perceived as having a considerable negative emotional impact on them. Years of caring was identified as a predictor of anxiety accounting for 20.4% of the variance, and timeline chronicity beliefs, consequences (relative) and illness coherence were identified as predictors of depression, accounting for 56.8% of the variance.
Illness cognitions are significant predictors of depression, thereby suggesting that cognition-based interventions may be effective in targeting depression in these informal carers. Thus, health professionals should explore the carers’ personal understanding of the disease, their timeline beliefs and the perceived consequences of providing care, as they relate to their psychological well-being.
Marcus, M., Yasamy, M. T., Mark, V. O., Chisholm, D., & Saxena, S. (2012) Depression a global health concern. World Federation for Mental Health, Depression: A global crisis. Retrieved from December 12, 2017, from http://www.who.int/mental_health/management/depression/who_paper_depression_wfmh_2012.pdf.
The World Health Report. (2001). Mental health: New understanding, new hope. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
Mathers, C. D., & Loncar, D. (2006). Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLOS Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030442.
Fenech, M., & Scerri, J. (2013). Coping experiences when caring for a person with severe mental illneses: A qualitative study. International Journal of Arts & Sciences, 6, 73–80.
Shah, A. J., Wadoo, O., & Latoo, J. (2010). Psychological distress in carers of people with mental disorders. British Journal of Medical Practice, 3(3), 18–25.
Highet, N. J., McNair, B. G., Davenport, T. A., & Hickie, I. B. (2004). How much more can we lose?”: Carer and family perspectives on living with a person with depression. The Medical Journal of Australia, 181(7), 6–9.
Caqueo-Urizar, A., Gutierrez-Maldonado, J., & Miranda-Castillo, C. (2009). Quality of life in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia: A literature review. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 7, 84–88. CrossRef
Kuipers, E., Onwumere, J., & Bebbington, P. (2010). Cognitive model of caregiving in psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 196, 259–265. CrossRef
Leventhal, H., Meyer, D., & Nerenz, D. (1980). The common-sense model of illness danger. In S. Rachman (Ed.), Medical Psychology (pp. 7–30). New York: Pergamon.
Barrowclough, C., Lobban, F., Hatton, C., & Quinn, J. (2001). An investigation of illness in carers of schizophrenia patients using the Illness Perception Questionnaire. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 371–385. CrossRef
Fortune, D. G., Smith, J. V., & Garvey, K. (2005). Perceptions of psychosis, coping appraisals, and psychological distress in the relatives of patients with schizophrenia: An exploration using self-regulation theory. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 319–331. CrossRef
Lobban, F., Barrowclough, C., & Jones, S. (2005). Assessing cognitive representations of mental health problems. The Illness Perception Questionnaire for schizophrenia: Relatives version. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 163–179. CrossRef
Holliday, J., Wall, E., Treasure, J., & Weinman, J. (2005). Perceptions of illness in individuals with anorexia nervosa: A comparison with lay men and women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 37(1), 50–56. CrossRef
Watson, P. W., Garety, P. A., Weinman, J., Dunn, G., Bebbington, P. E., Fowler, D., & Kuipers, E. (2006). Emotional dysfunction in schizophrenia spectrum psychosis: The role of illness perceptions. Psychological Medicine, 36(6), 761–770. CrossRef
Kuipers, E., Watson, P., Onwumere, J., Bebbington, P., Dunn, G., Weinman, J., et al. (2007). Discrepant illness perceptions, affect and expressed emotion in people with psychosis and their carers. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 42, 277–283. CrossRef
Hagger, M. S., & Orbell, S. (2003). A meta-analytic review of the common-sense model of illness representations. Psychology and Health, 18(2), 141–184. CrossRef
Leventhal, H., Brissette, I., & Leventhal, E. A. (2003). The common-sense model of health and illness. In L. D. Cameron & H. Leventhal. (Eds.), The common-sense of health and illness behaviour (pp. 42–65). London: Routledge.
Dempster, M., McCorry, N. K., Brennan, E., Donnelly, M., Murray, L. J., & Johnston, B. T. (2011). Illness perceptions among carer-survivor dyads are related to psychological distress among oesophageal cancer survivors. Journal of Psychosomatic Research., 70, 432–439. CrossRef
Moss-Morris, R., Weinman, J., Petrie, K., Horne, R., Cameron, L., & Buick, D. (2002). The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). Psychology and Health, 17, 1–16. CrossRef
Whitney, J., Haigh, R., Weinman, J., & Treasure, J. (2007). Caring for people with eating disorders: Factors associated with psychological distress and negative caregiving appraisals in carers of people with eating disorders. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46, 413–428. CrossRef
Zigmond, A. S., & Snaith, R. P. (1983). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, 361–370. CrossRef
Olsson, I., Mykletun, A., & Dahl, A. A. (2005). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Rating Scale: A cross-sectional study of psychometrics and case finding abilities in general practice. BMC Psychiatry, 5, 46. CrossRef
Snaith, R. P., & Zigmond, A. S. (1994). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale manual. Windsor: Nfer-Nelson Publishing.
Weinman, M., Heijmans, M. J., & Figueiras, M. J. (2003). Carer perceptions of chronic illness. In L. D. Cameron & H. Leventhal (Eds.), The self-regulation of health and illness behaviour (pp. 207–219). New York: Routledge.
Petrie, K. J., & Weinman, J. (2006). Why illness perceptions matter. Clinical Medicine, 6(6), 536–539. CrossRef
French, D. P., Senior, V., Weinman, J., & Marteau, T. M. (2001). Causal Attributions for Heart disease: A systematic review. Psychology and Health, 16, 77–98. CrossRef
French, D. P., Maissi, E., & Marteau, T. M. (2005). The purpose of attributing cause: beliefs about the causes of myocardial infarction. Social Science and Medicine, 60(7), 1411–1421. CrossRef
Cameron, L. D., Petrie, K. J., Ellis, C., Buick, D., & Weinman, J. A. (2005). Symptom experiences symptom attributions and causal attributions in patients following first time myocardial infarction. International Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 12, 30–38. CrossRef
Senior, V., Smith, J. A., Michie, S. M., & Marteau, T. M. (2002). Making sense of risk: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of vulnerability to heart disease. Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 157–168. CrossRef
Stjernsward, S., & Ostman, M. (2008). Whose life am I living? Relatives living in the shadow of depression. International Journal of Social Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764008090794.
Rose, L., Mallinson, R. K., & Walton-Moss, B. A. (2002). Grounded theory of families responding to mental illness. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 24(5), 516–536. CrossRef
Dixon, L., Lucksted, A., Stewart, B., Burland, J., Brown, C. H., Postrado, L., et al. (2004). Outcomes of the peer-taught 12-week family-to-family education program for severe mental illness. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 109, 207–215. CrossRef
Pickett-Schenk, S. A., Cook, J. A., & Laris, A. (2000). Journey of hope problem outcomes. Community Mental Health Journal, 36, 413–424. CrossRef
- Illness perceptions, depression and anxiety in informal carers of persons with depression: a cross-sectional survey
Christian A. Scerri
- Springer International Publishing