Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Identity formation is a core developmental task of adolescence. Adolescents can rely on different social-cognitive styles to seek, process, and encode self-relevant information: information-oriented, normative, and diffuse-avoidant identity styles. The reliance on different styles might impact adolescents’ adjustment and their active involvement in the society. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents with different identity styles report differences in positive youth development (analyzed with the Five Cs—Competence, Confidence, Character, Connection, and Caring—model) and in various forms of civic engagement (i.e., involvement in school self-government activities, volunteering activities, youth political organizations, and youth non-political organizations). The participants were 1,633 (54.1 % female) 14–19 years old adolescents (M age = 16.56, SD age = 1.22). The findings indicated that adolescents with different identity styles differed significantly on all the Five Cs and on two (i.e., involvement in volunteering activities and in youth non-political organizations) forms of civic engagement. Briefly, adolescents with an information-oriented style reported high levels of both the Five Cs and civic engagement; participants with a normative style reported moderate to high scores on the Five Cs but low rates of civic engagement; diffuse-avoidant respondents scored low both on the Five Cs and on civic engagement. These findings suggest that the information-oriented style, contrary to the diffuse-avoidant one, has beneficial effects for both the individual and the community, while the normative style has quite beneficial effects for the individual but not for his/her community. Concluding, adolescents with different identity styles display meaningful differences in positive youth development and in rates of civic engagement.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Adams, G. R., Munro, B., Doherty-Poirer, M., Munro, G., Petersen, A.-M. R., & Edwards, J. (2001). Diffuse-avoidance, normative, and informational identity styles: Using identity theory to predict maladjustment. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 1, 307–320. CrossRef
Adams, G. R., Munro, B., Munro, G., Doherty-Poirer, M., & Edwards, J. (2005). Identity processing styles and Canadian adolescents’ self-reported delinquency. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 5, 57–65. CrossRef
Adler, R. P., & Goggin, J. (2005). What do we mean by “civic engagement”? Journal of Transformative Education, 3, 236–253. CrossRef
Andolina, M. W., Jenkins, K., Keeter, S., & Zukin, C. (2002). Searching for the meaning of youth civic engagement: Notes from the field. Applied Developmental Science, 6, 189–195. CrossRef
Beaumont, S. L. (2009). Identity processing and personal wisdom: An information-oriented identity style predicts self-actualization and self-transcendence. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 9, 95–115. CrossRef
Berzonsky, M. D. (1989). Identity style: Conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Adolescent Research, 4, 268–282. CrossRef
Berzonsky, M. D. (1994). Self-identity: The relationship between process and content. Journal of Research in Personality, 28, 453–460. CrossRef
Berzonsky, M. D. (2003). Identity style and well-being: Does commitment matter? Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 3, 131–142. CrossRef
Berzonsky, M. D. (2011). A social-cognitive perspective on identity construction. In S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignoles (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research (pp. 55–76). New York: Springer. CrossRef
Berzonsky, M. D., & Ferrari, J. R. (1996). Identity style and decisional strategies. Personality and Individual Differences, 20, 597–606. CrossRef
Berzonsky, M. D., & Kuk, L. S. (2005). Identity style, psychosocial maturity, and academic performance. Personal and Individual Differences, 39, 235–247. CrossRef
Berzonsky, M. D., Macek, P., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2003). Interrelations among identity process, content, and structure: A cross-cultural investigation. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18, 112–130. CrossRef
Berzonsky, M. D., & Sullivan, C. (1992). Social-cognitive aspects of identity style. Need for cognition, experiential openness, and introspection. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 140–155. CrossRef
Boyd, V. S., Hunt, P. F., Kandell, J. J., & Lucas, M. S. (2003). Relationship between identity processing style and academic success in undergraduate students. Journal of College Student Development, 44, 155–167. CrossRef
Byrne, B. M. (2012). Structural equation modeling with Mplus: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Cicognani, E., Klimstra, T., & Goossens, L. (2013). Sense of community, identity statuses, and loneliness in adolescence: A cross-national study on Italian and Belgian youth. Journal of Community Psychology. doi: 10.1002/jcop.21618.
Cicognani, E., Pirini, C., Keyes, C., Joshanloo, M., Rostami, R., & Nosratabadi, M. (2008). Social participation, sense of community and social well-being: A study on American, Italian and Iranian university students. Social Indicator Research, 89, 97–112. CrossRef
Crocetti, E., Cherubini, E., & Palmonari, A. (2011). Social support and identity styles in adolescence. Psicologia Clinica Dello Sviluppo, 15, 353–377.
Crocetti, E., & Shokri, O. (2010). Iranian validation of the Identity Style Inventory. International Journal of Testing, 10, 185–199. CrossRef
Crocetti, E., Sica, L. S., Schwartz, S. J., Serafini, T., & Meeus, W. (2013). Identity styles, processes, statuses, and functions: Making connections among identity dimensions. European Review of Applied Psychology, 63, 1–13. CrossRef
Damon, W. (2004). What is positive youth development? Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591, 13–24. CrossRef
Dollinger, S. M. (1995). Identity styles and the five-factor model of personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 29, 475–479. CrossRef
Dunkel, C. S., Papini, D. R., & Berzonsky, M. D. (2008). Explaining differences in identity styles: Possible roles of personality and family functioning. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 8, 349–363. CrossRef
Erentaitė, R., & Raiziene, S. (2013). Lithuanian validation of the measure of positive youth development (manuscript in preparation).
Erikson, E. (1968). Identity, youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
Esser, F., & de Vreese, C. H. (2007). Comparing young voters’ political engagement in the United States and Europe. American Behavioral Scientist, 50, 1195–1213. CrossRef
Hardy, S. A., Pratt, M. W., Pancer, S. M., Olsen, J. A., & Lawford, H. L. (2010). Community and religious involvement as contexts of identity change across late adolescence and emerging adulthood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 125–135. CrossRef
Havighurst, R. J. (1952). Developmental tasks and education. New York: Davis McKay.
Jahromi, P., Crocetti, E., & Buchanan, C. (2012). A cross-cultural examination of adolescent civic engagement: Comparing Italian and American volunteerism and political involvement. Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, 40, 22–36. CrossRef
Krettenauer, T. (2005). The role of epistemic cognition in adolescent identity formation: Further evidence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 185–198. CrossRef
Kroger, J. (2004). Identity in adolescence: The balance between self and other (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. CrossRef
Lerner, R. M. (2004). Liberty: Thriving and civic engagement among American youth. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Lerner, R. (2010). Scoring protocol: Measure of PYD (4 H study of PYD). Unpublished manual. Institute for applied Research in Youth Development, Tufts University, Medford, USA.
Lerner, R. M., Lerner, J. V., Almerigi, J. B., Theokas, C., Phelps, E., Gestsdottir, S., et al. (2005). Positive youth development, participation in community youth development programs, and community contributions of fifth-grade adolescents: Findings from the first wave of the 4-H study of positive youth development. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 17–71. CrossRef
Lerner, J. V., Phelps, E., Forman, Y., & Bowers, E. P. (2009). Positive youth development. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology: Individual bases of adolescent development (3rd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 524–558). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. CrossRef
Luyckx, K., Lens, W., Smits, I., & Goossens, L. (2010). Time perspective and identity formation: Short-term longitudinal dynamics in college students. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 34, 238–247. CrossRef
Matheis, S., & Adams, G. R. (2004). Family climate and identity style during late adolescence. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 4, 77–95. CrossRef
Muthén, L.K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus User’s Guide (7th Ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Nurmi, J. E., Berzonsky, M. D., Tammi, K., & Kinney, A. (1997). Identity processing orientation, cognitive and behavioural strategies and well-being. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 21, 555–570. CrossRef
Pancer, M. S., Pratt, M., Hunsberger, B., & Alisat, S. (2007). Community and political involvement in adolescence: What distinguishes the activists from the uninvolved? Journal of Community Psychology, 35, 741–759. CrossRef
Passmore, N. L., Fogarty, G. J., Bourke, C. J., & Baker-Evans, S. F. (2005). Parental bonding and identity style as correlates of self-esteem among adult adoptees and nonadoptees. Family Relations, 54, 523–534. CrossRef
Roth, J. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2003). What exactly is a youth development program? Answers from research and practice. Applied Developmental Science, 7, 94–111. CrossRef
Schwartz, S. J. (2005). A new identity for identity research: Recommendations for expanding and refocusing the identity literature. Journal of Adolescent Research, 20, 293–308. CrossRef
Schwartz, S. J., & Pantin, H. (2006). Identity development in adolescence and emerging adulthood: The interface of self, context, and culture. In A. Prescott (Ed.), The concept of self in psychology (pp. 45–85). Hauppage, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
Seabi, J. (2009). Relating identity processing styles to commitment and self-esteem among college students. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 19, 309–314.
Seaton, C. L., & Beaumont, S. L. (2008). Individual differences in identity styles predict proactive forms of positive adjustment. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 8, 249–268. CrossRef
Sherrod, L. (2007). Civic engagement as an expression of positive youth development. In R. Silbereisen & R. Lerner (Eds.), Approaches to positive youth development (pp. 59–75). London: SAGE Publications Ltd. CrossRef
Sherrod, L. R., Flanagan, C., Kassimir, R., & Syvertsen, A. (2005). Youth activism: An international encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Smits, I., Doumen, S., Luyckx, K., Duriez, B., & Goossens, L. (2011). Identity styles and interpersonal behavior in emerging adulthood: The intervening role of empathy. Social Development, 20, 664–684. CrossRef
Smits, I., Soenens, B., Berzonsky, M., Luyckx, K., Goossens, L., Kunnen, S., et al. (2009). The Identity Style Inventory—version 4: A cross-national study in scale development and validation. In Smits I. (Ed.), Identity styles in adolescence: Measurement and associations with perceived parenting, personal well- being, and interpersonal functioning (pp. 57–105). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
Walker, T. (2000). The service/politics split: Rethinking service to teach political engagement. PS: Political Science and Politics, 33, 646–649.
Wheeler, H. A., Adams, G. R., & Keating, L. (2001). Binge eating as a means for evading identity issues: The association between an avoidance identity style and bulimic behavior. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 1, 161–178. CrossRef
White, J. M., & Jones, R. M. (1996). Identity styles of male inmates. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 23, 490–504. CrossRef
Youniss, J., & Levine, P. (Eds.). (2009). Engaging young people in civic life. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.
- Identity Styles, Positive Youth Development, and Civic Engagement in Adolescence
- Springer US