Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
There is a lack of knowledge about specific components that make interventions effective in preventing or reducing child maltreatment. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to increase this knowledge by summarizing findings on effects of interventions for child maltreatment and by examining potential moderators of this effect, such as intervention components and study characteristics. Identifying effective components is essential for developing or improving child maltreatment interventions. A literature search yielded 121 independent studies (N = 39,044) examining the effects of interventions for preventing or reducing child maltreatment. From these studies, 352 effect sizes were extracted. The overall effect size was significant and small in magnitude for both preventive interventions (d = 0.26, p < .001) and curative interventions (d = 0.36, p < .001). Cognitive behavioral therapy, home visitation, parent training, family-based/multisystemic, substance abuse, and combined interventions were effective in preventing and/or reducing child maltreatment. For preventive interventions, larger effect sizes were found for short-term interventions (0–6 months), interventions focusing on increasing self-confidence of parents, and interventions delivered by professionals only. Further, effect sizes of preventive interventions increased as follow-up duration increased, which may indicate a sleeper effect of preventive interventions. For curative interventions, larger effect sizes were found for interventions focusing on improving parenting skills and interventions providing social and/or emotional support. Interventions can be effective in preventing or reducing child maltreatment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
(*References marked with an asterisk were included in the meta-analysis)
Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2010a). The psychology of criminal conduct (4th ed.). Newark: Lexis/Nexis.
Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2010b). Rehabilitating criminal justice policy and practice. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law,16, 39–55. CrossRef
Andrews, D. A., Bonta, J., & Hoge, R. D. (1990a). Classification for effective rehabilitation: Rediscovering psychology. Criminal Justice and Behavior,17, 19–52. CrossRef
Andrews, D. A., & Dowden, C. (1999). A meta-analytic investigation into effective correctional intervention for female offenders. Forum on Corrections Research,11, 18–21.
Andrews, D. A., Zinger, I., Hoge, R. D., Bonta, J., Gendreau, P., & Cullen, F. T. (1990b). Does correctional treatment work? A clinically relevant and psychologically informed meta-analysis. Criminology,28, 369–404. CrossRef
*Antle, B. F., Barbee, A. P., Christensen, D. N., & Sullivan, D. J. (2009). The prevention of child maltreatment recidivism through the Solution-Based Casework model of child welfare practice. Children and Youth Services Review,31, 1346–1351. CrossRef
*Arancena, M., Krause, M., Pérez, C., Méndez, M. J., Salvatierra, L., Soto, M., et al. (2009). A cost-effectiveness evaluation of a home visit program for adolescent mothers. Journal of Health Psychology,14, 878–887. CrossRef
*Armstrong, K. L., & Morris, J. (2000). Promoting secure attachment, maternal mood and child health in a vulnerable population: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health,36, 555–562. CrossRef
Assink, M., Van der Put, C. E., Hoeve, M., De Vries, S. L. A., Stams, G. J. J. M., & Oort, F. J. (2015). Risk factors for persistent delinquent behavior among juveniles: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review,42, 47–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.08.002. PubMedCrossRef
*Berzin, S. C., Cohen, E., Thomas, K., & Dawson, W. C. (2008). Does family group decision making affect child welfare outcomes? Findings from a randomized control study. Child Welfare,87, 35–54. PubMed
*Black, M. M., Nair, P., Kight, C., Wachtel, R., Roby, P., & Schuler, M. (1994). Parenting and early development among children of drug abusing women: Effects of home intervention. Pediatrics,94, 440–448. PubMed
Blase, K., & Fixsen, D. (2013). Core intervention components. Identifying and operationalizing what makes programs work. Washington, DC: Office of Human Services Policy, US Department of Health and Human Services.
*Bouwmeester-Landweer, M. B. R. (2006). Early home visitation in families at risk for child maltreatment (Proefschrift, Universiteit Leiden). Verkregen van https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/handle/1887/4396.
*Britner, P. A., & Reppucci, N. D. (1997). Prevention of child maltreatment: Evaluation of a parent education program for teen mothers. Journal of Child and Family Studies,6, 165–175. CrossRef
*Casanueva, C., Martin, S. L., Runyan, D. K., Barth, R. P., & Bradly, R. H. (2008). Parenting services for mothers involved with child protective services: Do they change maternal parenting and spanking behaviors with young children? Children and Youth Services Review,30, 861–878. CrossRef
*Casiro, O. G., McKenzie, M. E., McFadyen, L., Shapiro, C., Seshia, M. M., MacDonald, N., et al. (1993). Earlier discharge with community-based intervention for low birth weight infants: A randomized trial. Pediatrics,92, 128–134. PubMed
*Chaffin, M., Silovsky, J. F., Funderburk, B., Valle, L. A., Brestan, E. V., Balachova, et al. (2004). Parent–child interaction therapy with physically abusive parents: Efficacy for reducing future abuse reports. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 500–610.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
*Crampton, D., & Jackson, W. L. (2007). Family group decision making and disproportionality in foster care: a case study. ChildWelfare,86, 51–69.
*Culp, A. M., Culp, R. E., Hechtner-Galvin, T., Howell, C. S., Saathoff-Wells, T., & Marr, P. (2004). First-time mothers in home visitation services utilizing child development specialists. Infant Mental Health Journal,25, 1–15. CrossRef
Daro, D. (2011). Prevention of child abuse and neglect. In J. E. B. Meyers (Ed.), The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment (3rd ed., pp. 17–37). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
*Dawson, P., Van Doorninck, W. J., & Robinson, J. L. (1989). Effects of home-based, informal social support on child health. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics,10, 63–67.
De Vries, S. L., Hoeve, M., Assink, M., Stams, G. J. J., & Asscher, J. J. (2015). Practitioner review: effective ingredients of prevention programs for youth at risk of persistent juvenile delinquency—recommendations for clinical practice. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,56(2), 108–121. PubMedCrossRef
*Dew, B., & Breakey, G. F. (2014). An evaluation of Hawaii’s Healthy Start Program using child abuse hospitalization data. Journal of Family Violence,29, 893–900. CrossRef
*Donohue, B., Azrin, N. H., Bradshaw, K., Van Hasselt, V. B., Cross, C. L., Urgelles, J., et al. (2014). A controlled evaluation of Family Behavior Therapy in concurrent child neglect and drug abuse. Journal of Consult Clinical Psychology,82, 706–720. CrossRef
*DuMont, K., Kirkland, K., Mitchell-Herzfeld, S., Ehrhard-Dietzel, S., Rodriguez, M. L., Lee, E., et al. (2011). A randomized trial of Healthy Families New York (HFNY): Does home visiting prevent child maltreatment. Verkregen van https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/232945.pdf.
Durlak, J. A., & Lipsey, M. W. (1991). A practitioner’s guide to meta-analysis. American Journal of Community Psychology,19, 291–332. PubMed
Duval, S., & Tweedie, R. (2000a). A nonparametric ‘trim and fill’ method of accounting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association,95, 89–99.
*Easterbrooks, M. A., Jacobs, F. H., Bartlett, J. D., Goldberg, J., Contreras, M. M., Kotake, C., et al. (2012). Initial findings from a randomized, controlled trial of Healthy Families Massachusetts: Early program impacts on young mothers’ parenting. Verkregen van http://www.aws.pewtrusts.org/~/media/legacy/uploadedfiles/pcs_assets/2013/healthyfamiliesmassachusettsreportpdf.pdf.
Egger, M., Davey-Smith, G., & Altman, D. (2001). Systematic reviews in healthcare. London: British Medical Journal Books. CrossRef
Euser, S., Alink, L. R. A., Stoltenborgh, M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2015). A gloomy picture: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials reveals disappointing effectiveness of programs aiming at preventing child maltreatment. BMC Public Health,15, 1–14. CrossRef
*Falconer, M. K., Clark, M. H., & Parris, D. (2011). Validity in an evaluation of Healthy Families Florida—A program to prevent child abuse and neglect. Children and Youth Services Review,33, 66–77. CrossRef
Farrington, D. P. (2003). Methodological quality standards for evaluation research. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,587(1), 49–68. CrossRef
Ferguson, G. A. (1966). Statistical analysis in psychology & education (p. 244). New York: McGraw-Hill.
*Fergusson, D. M., Grant, H., Horwood, L. J., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Randomized trial of the Early Start Program of home visitation. Pediatrics,116, 803–809. CrossRef
Filene, J. H., Kaminski, J. W., Valle, L. A., & Cachet, P. (2013). Components associated with home visiting program outcomes: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics,132, 100–109. CrossRef
Finkelhor, D. (2008). Childhood victimization. Violence, crime and abuse in the lives of young people. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
*Fujiwara, T., Kato, N., & Sanders, M. R. (2011). Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in changing child behavior, parenting style, and parental adjustment: An intervention study in Japan. Journal of Child and Family Studies,20, 804–813. CrossRef
*Galanter, R., Self-Brown, S., Valente, R. R., Dorsey, S., Whitaker, D. J., Bertuglia-Haley, M., et al. (2012). Effectiveness of Parent–Child Interaction Therapy delivered to at-risk families in the home setting. Child & Family Behavior Therapy,34, 177–196. CrossRef
Geeraerts, L., Van den Noortgate, W., Grietens, H., & Ongehena, P. (2004). The effects of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect: A meta-Analysis. Child Maltreatment,9, 277–291. CrossRef
Gilbert, R., Spatz Widom, C., Browne, K., Fergusson, D., Webb, E., & Janson, S. (2008). Child Maltreatment 1: Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. Lancet. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61706-7. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
*Gray, J. D., Cutler, C. A., Dean, J. G., & Kempe, C. H. (1977). Prediction and prevention of child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse and Neglect,1, 45–58. CrossRef
*Green, B. L., Ayoub, C., Dym Barlett, J., Von Ende, A., Furrer, C., Chazan-Cohen, R., et al. (2014a). The effect of Early Head Start on child welfare system involvement: A first look at longitudinal child maltreatment outcomes. Children and Youth Services Review,42, 127–135. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
*Green, B. L., Tarte, J. M., Harrison, P. M., Nygren, M., & Sanders, M. B. (2014b). Results from a randomized trial of the Healthy Families Oregon accredited statewide program: Early program impacts on parenting. Children and Youth Services Review,44, 288–298. CrossRef
Guterman, N. B., Tabone, J. K., Bryan, G. M., Taylor, C. A., Napoleon-Hanger, C., & Banman, A. (2013). Examining the effectiveness of home-based parent aide services to reduce risk for physical child abuse and neglect: Six-month findings from a randomized clinical trial. Child Abuse and Neglect,37(8), 566–577. PubMedCrossRef
*Guthrie, K. F., Gaziano, C., & Gaziano, E. P. (2009). Toward better beginnings: Enhancing healthy child development and parent–child relationships in a high-risk population. Home Health Care Management & Practice,21, 99–108. CrossRef
*Hans, S. L., Thullen, M., Henson, L. G., Lee, H., Edwards, R. C., & Bernstein, V. J. (2013). Promoting positive mother–infant relationships: A randomized trial of community doula support for young mothers. Infant Mental Health Journal,34, 446–457. CrossRef
*Harden, B. J., Sandstrom, H., & Chazan-Cohen, R. (2012). Early Head Start and African American families: Impacts and mechanisms of child outcomes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly,27, 572–581. CrossRef
*Harder, J. (2005). Prevention of child abuse and neglect: An evaluation of a home visitation parent aide program using recidivism data. Research on Social Work Practice,15, 246–256. CrossRef
*Honig, A. S., & Morin, c. (2001). When should programs for teen parents and babies begin? Longitudinal evaluation of a teen parents and babies program. Journal of Primary Prevention,21, 447–454. CrossRef
Hox, J. (2002). Multilevel analysis: Techniques and applications. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. CrossRef
*Jacobs, F., Easterbrooks, A., Goldberg, J., Mistry, J., Bumgarnder, E., Raskin, M., et al. (2016). Improving adolescent parenting: Results from a randomized controlled trial of a home visiting program for young families. AJPH Research,106, 342–349. CrossRef
*Javier, J. R., Coffey, D. M., Schrager, S. M., Palinkas, L. A., & Miranda, J. (2016). Parenting intervention for prevention of behavioral problems in elementary school-age Filipino-American children: A pilot study in churches. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics,37, 737–745. PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentral
*Johnston, B. D., Huebner, C. E., Anderson, M. L., Tyll, L. T., & Thompson, R. S. (2006). Healthy steps in an integrated delivery system: Child and parent outcomes at 30 months. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine,160, 793–800. CrossRef
*Jones Harden, B., Chazan-Cohen, R., Raikes, H., & Vogel, C. (2012). Early head start home visitation: The role of implementation in bolstering program benefits. Journal of Community Psychology,40, 438–455. CrossRef
*Jouriles, E. N., McDonald, R., Rosenfield, D., Spiller, L., Corbitt-Shindler, D., Norwoodm, W. D., et al. (2010). Improving parenting in families peferred for child maltreatment: A randomized controlled trial examining effects of project support. Journal of Family Psychology,24, 328–338. PubMedCrossRef
*Kagitcibasi, C., Sunar, D., & Bekman, S. (2001). Long-term effects of early intervention: Turkish low-income mothers and children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,22, 333–361. CrossRef
*Kirk, R. S., & Griffith, d P. (2004). Intensive family preservation services: Demonstrating placement prevention using event history analysis. Social Work Research,28, 5–16. CrossRef
*Knox, M., Burkhart, K., & Cromly, A. (2013). Supporting positive parenting in community health centers: The ACT Raising Safe Kids program. Journal of Community Psychology,41, 395–407. CrossRef
*Knox, M. S., Burkhart, K., & Hunter, K. E. (2011). ACT against Violence Parents Raising Safe Kids Program: Effects on maltreatment-related parenting behaviors and beliefs. Journal of Family Issues,32, 55–74. CrossRef
*Kolko, D. J. (1996). Individual cognitive behavioral treatment an family therapy for physically abused children and their offending parents: A comparison of clinical outcomes. Child Maltreatment,1, 322–342. CrossRef
*Larson, C. P. (1980). Efficacy of prenatal and postpartum home visits on child health and development. Pediatrics,66, 191–197. PubMed
Layzer, J. I., Goodson, B. D., Bernstein, L., & Price, C. (2001). National Evaluation of family support programs. Final report volume A: The meta- analysis.
*Lealman, G. T., Haigh, D., Philips, J. M., Stone, J., & Ord-Smith, C. (1983). Prediction and prevention of child abuse: An empty hope? Lancet,25, 1423–1424. CrossRef
*LeCroy, C. W., & Krysik, J. (2011). Randomized trial of the Healthy Families Arizona home visiting program. Children and Youth Services Review,33, 1761–1766. CrossRef
Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
*MacMillan, H. L., Thomas, B. H., Jamieson, E., Walsh, C. A., Boyle, M. H., Shannon, H. S., et al. (2005). Effectiveness of home visitation by public-health nurses in prevention of the recurrence of child physical abuse and neglect: A randomized controlled trial. Lancet,365, 1786–1793. PubMedCrossRef
Marcenko, M. O., Spence, M., & Samost, L. (1996). Outcomes of a home visitation trial for pregnant and postpartum women at risk for child placement. Children and Youth Services Review,18, 243–259. CrossRef
Maurer, D., Mondloch, C. J., & Lewis, T. L. (2007). Sleeper effects. Developmental Science,10, 40–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00562.x. PubMedCrossRef
*Mejdoubi, J., Van den Heijkant, S. C. C. M., Van Leerdam, F. J. M., Heymans, M. W., Crijnen, A., & Hirasing, R. A. (2015). The effect of VoorZorg, the Dutch Nurse- Family Partnership, on child maltreatment and development: A randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE,10, 1–14.
Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., et al. (2013). The behaviour change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: building an international consensus for the reporting of behaviour change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine,46(1), 81–95. PubMedCrossRef
Minkovitz, C. S., Hughart, N., Strobino, D., Scharfstein, D., Grason, H., Hou, W., et al. (2003). A practice-based intervention to enhance quality of care in the first 3 years of life: The Healthy Steps for Young Children Program. The Journal of the American Medical Association,290, 3081–3091. PubMedCrossRef
*Minkovitz, C. S., Strobino, D., Mistry, K. B., Scharfstein, D. O., Grason, H., Hou, W., et al. (2007). Healthy Steps for Young Children: sustained results at 5.5 years. Pediatrics,120, 658–668. CrossRef
Nakagawa, S., & Santos, E. S. A. (2012). Methodological issues and advances in biological meta-analysis. Evolutionary Ecology,26(5), 1253–1274. CrossRef
*Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. R., Chamberlin, R., & Tatelbaum, R. (1986). Preventing child abuse and neglect: A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics,78, 65–78. PubMed
*Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. R., & Kitzman, H. (1994). Does prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation have enduring effects on qualities of parental caregiving and child health at 25 to 50 months of life? Pediatrics,93, 89–98. PubMed
*Paradis, H. A., Sandler, M., Todd Manly, J., & Valentine, L. (2013). Building Healthy Children: Evidence-based home visitation integrated with pediatric medical homes. Pediatrics,132, 174–179. CrossRef
*Pataki, G. E., & Johnson, J. A. (2005). Evaluation of Healthy Families New York (HFNY): First year program impacts. Verkregen van http://www.ocfs.state.ny.us/main/prevention/assets/HFNY_FirstYearProgramImpacts.pdf.
*Pennell, J., & Burford, G. (2000). Family group decision making: Protecting children and women. Child welfare,79, 131–158. PubMed
*Puffer, E. S., Green, E. P., Chase, R. M., Sim, A. L., Zayzay, J., Friis, E., et al. (2015). Parents make the difference: A randomized-controlled trial of a parenting intervention in Liberia. Global Mental Health,2, 1–13. CrossRef
Rosenthal, R. (1994). Parametric measures of effect size. In H. Cooper & L. V. Hedges (Eds.), The Handbook of Research Synthesis (p. 239). New York: Sage.
Rosenthal, R. (1995). Writing meta-analytic reviews. Psychological Bulletin,118, 183–192. CrossRef
*Runyon, M. K., Deblinger, E., & Steer, R. A. (2010). Group cognitive behavioral treatment for parents and children at-risk for physical abuse: An initial study. Child & Family Behavior Therapy,32, 196–218. CrossRef
*Sanders, M. R., Pidgeon, A. M., Gravestock, F., Connors, M. D., Brown, S., & Young, R. W. (2004). Does parental attributional retraining and anger management enhance the effects of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program with parents at risk of child maltreatment? Behavior Therapy,35, 513–535. CrossRef
*Sawasdipanich, N., Srisuphan, W., Yenbut, J., Tiansawad, S., & Humphreys, J. (2010). Effects of a cognitive adjustment program for Thai parents. Nursing and Health Sciences, 12, 1–8. CrossRef
*Schaeffer, C. M., Swenson, C. C., Tuerk, E. H., & Henggeler, S. W. (2013). Comprehensive treatment for co-occurring child maltreatment and parental substance abuse: Outcomes from a 24-month pilot study of the MST-Building Stronger Families program. Child Abuse and Neglect,37, 596–607. PubMedCrossRef
*Scholer, S. J., Hamilton, E. C., Johnson, M. C., & Scott, T. A. (2010). A brief intervention may affect parents’ attitudes toward using less physical punishment. Family & Community Health,33, 106–116. CrossRef
*Siegel, E., Bauman, K. E., Schaefer, E. S., Saunders, M. M., & Ingram, D. D. (1980). Hospital and home support during infancy: impact on maternal attachment, child abuse and neglect, and health care utilization. Pediatrics,66, 183–190. PubMed
*Silovsky, J. F., Bard, D., Chaffin, M., Hecht, D., Burris, L., Owara, A., et al. (2011). Prevention of child maltreatment in high-risk rural families: A randomized clinical trial with child welfare outcomes. Children and Youth Services Review,33, 1435–1444. CrossRef
Stith, S. M., Liu, T., Davies, L. C., Boykin, E. L., Alder, M. C., Harris, J. M., et al. (2009). Risk factors in child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior,14(1), 13–29. CrossRef
Stoltenborgh, M., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Alink, L. R. A., & Van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2014). The prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe: Review of a series of meta-analyses. Child Abuse Review,24, 37–50. CrossRef
*Suess, G. J., Bohlen, U., Carlson, E. A., Spangler, G., & Frumentia Maier, M. (2016). Effectiveness of attachment based STEEP™ intervention in a German high-risk sample. Attachment & Human Development,18, 443–460. CrossRef
Tabachnik, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Van den Noortgate, W., López-López, J. A., Marin-Martinez, F., & Sánchez-Meca, J. (2014). Meta-analysis of multiple outcomes: A multilevel approach. Behavior Research Methods,47, 1274–1294. CrossRef
*Velasques, J., Christensen, M. L., & Schommer, B. L. (1984). Part II: Intensive services help prevent child abuse. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing,9, 113–117. CrossRef
Viechtbauer, W. (2010). Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. Journal of Statistical Software,36, 1–48. CrossRef
*Wagner, M. M., Spiker, D., & Linn, M. I. (2002). The effectiveness of the Parents as Teachers program with low-income parents and children. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education,22, 67–81. CrossRef
*Walton, E. (1997). Enhancing investigative decisions in child welfare: An exploratory use of intensive family preservation services. Child welfare,76, 447–461. PubMed
*Walton, E. (2001). Combining abuse and neglect investigations with intensive family preservation services: An innovative approach to protecting children. Research on Social Work Practice,11, 627–644. CrossRef
*Walton, E., Fraser, M. W., Lewis, R. E., Pecora, P. J., & Walton, W. K. (1992). In-home family-focused reunification: an experimental study. Child welfare,72, 473–487.
*Weigensberg, E. C., Barth, R. P., & Guo, S. (2009). Family group decision making: A propensity score analysis to evaluate child and family services at baseline and after 36-months. Children and Youth Services Review,31, 383–390. CrossRef
*Wesch, D., & Lutzker, J. R. (1991). A comprehensive 5-year evaluation of Project 12-Ways: An ecobehavioral program for treating and preventing child abuse and neglect. Journal of Family Violence,6, 17–35. CrossRef
*Wood, S., Barton, K., & Schroeder, C. (1988). In-home treatment of abusive families: Cost and placement at one year. Psychotherapy: Theory Research, Practice, Training,25, 409–414. CrossRef
- Identifying Effective Components of Child Maltreatment Interventions: A Meta-analysis
Claudia E. van der Put
Noëlle F. Boekhout van Solinge
- Springer US