Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Emotional and cognitive changes that occur during adolescence set the stage for the development of adaptive or maladaptive beliefs about emotions. Although research suggests that parents’ behaviors and beliefs about emotions relate to children’s emotional abilities, few studies have looked at parental socialization of children’s emotions, particularly in families with depressed adolescents. The present study examined associations between parent and adolescent meta-emotion philosophies (MEP), defined as thoughts, reactions, and feelings about their own emotions. Additionally, adolescent depressive status was tested as a moderator of relationships between parents’ and adolescents’ MEP. One hundred and 52 adolescents, aged 14–18 (65.8% female), and their parents (148 mothers, 106 fathers) participated in a study on emotion socialization in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Depressed adolescents (n = 75) and matched healthy adolescents (n = 77) were recruited based on research criteria for mental health status. The sample was largely Caucasian (82%) and of middle socioeconomic class status. Results indicated that mothers’ and fathers’ MEP about their children’s emotions were associated with adolescents’ MEP, although parents’ MEP about their own emotions was unrelated to adolescents’ MEP. Fathers’ MEP about children’s emotions made unique contributions to adolescents’ MEP across both adolescent groups. Adolescents’ depressive status moderated the relationship between mothers’ and adolescents’ MEP such that mothers’ MEP was particularly relevant for depressed adolescents. The continued influence of parents in the emotional lives of adolescents is discussed as well as differences in emotion socialization in families with depressed and healthy adolescents.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newberry Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Allison, P. D. (2002). Missing data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Brody, L. R., & Hall, J. A. (2000). Gender, emotion, and expression. In M. Lewis & J. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (Vol. 2, pp. 338–349). New York: Guildford Press.
Cleary, R. P., & Katz, L. F. (2008). Family-level emotion socialization and children’s comfort with emotional expressivity. The Family Psychologist,24, 7–13.
Dahl, R. E. (2001). Affect regulation, brain development, and behavioral/emotional health in adolescence. CNS Spectrums,6, 1–12.
Denham, S. A., Cook, M., & Zoller, D. (1992). Baby looks very sad: Implication of conversations about feelings between mother and preschooler. British Journal of Developmental Psychology,10, 301–315.
Denham, S., & Kochanoff, A. (2002). Parental contributions to preschoolers’ understanding of emotion. Marriage & Family Review,34, 311–343. CrossRef
Denham, S. A., Mitchell-Copeland, J., Strandberg, K., Auerbach, S., & Blair, K. (1997). Parental contributions to preschoolers’ emotional competence: Direct and indirect effects. Motivation and Emotion,21, 65–86. CrossRef
Essau, C. A. (2004). The association between family factors and depressive disorders in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,33, 365–372. CrossRef
Galaif, E. R., Sussman, S., Chou, C., & Wills, A. (2003). Longitudinal relations among depression, stress, and coping in high risk youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,32, 243–258. CrossRef
Garber, J., Braafladt, N., & Weiss, B. (1995). Affect regulation in depressed and nondepressed children and young adolescents. Development and Psychopathology,7, 93–115. CrossRef
Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1997). Meta-emotion: How families communicate emotionally. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Halberstadt, A. G. (1991). Towards an ecology of expressiveness: Family expressiveness in particular and a model in general. In R. S. Feldman & B. Rime (Eds.), Fundamentals in nonverbal behavior (pp. 106–160). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Helsen, M., Vollebergh, W., & Meeus, W. (2000). Social support from parents and friends and emotional problems in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29(3), 319–335. CrossRef
Hessler, D. M., Hunter, E. C., Katz, L. F., & Windecker-Nelson, B. (2005). The child and adolescent meta- emotion coding system. Unpublished manuscript, University of Washington.
Hunter, E. C., Hessler, D. M., Katz, L. F., Hooven, C., & Mittman, A. (2006). The parent meta- emotion coding system. Unpublished manuscript, University of Washington.
Katz, L. F., & Gottman, J. M. (1986). The meta- emotion interview. Unpublished manual, University of Washington, Department of Psychology, Seattle, WA.
Katz, L. F., & Hunter, E. C. (2007). Maternal meta-emotion philosophy and adolescent depressive symptomatology. Social Development,16, 343–360. CrossRef
Katz, L. F., Mittman, A., & Hooven, C. (1994). The Parent Meta-Emotion Coding System. Unpublished manuscript. University of Washington.
Katz, L.F., & Windecker-Nelson, B. (2002). The child/adolescent meta- emotion interview. Unpublished manuscript, University of Washington.
Klimes-Dougan, B., Brand, A. E., Zahn-Waxler, C., Usher, B., Hastings, P. D., Kendziora, K., et al. (2007). Parental emotion socialization in adolescence: Differences in sex, age, and problem status. Social Development,16, 326–342. CrossRef
LaBounty, J., Wellman, H. M., Olson, S., Lagattuta, K., & Liu, D. (2008). Mothers’ and fathers’ use of internal state talk with their young children. Social Development,17, 757–775. CrossRef
Magaro, M. M., & Weisz, J. R. (2006). Perceived control mediates the relation between parental rejection and youth depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,34, 863–872. CrossRef
Nahm, E. Y. (2007). A cross-cultural comparison of Korean American and European American parental meta-emotion philosophy and its relationship to parent-child interaction. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 67, 4136.
Orvaschel, H., & Puig-Antich, J. (1994). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School- Aged Children— Epidemiologic Version 5 (K- SADS- E). Nova Southeastern University.
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement,1, 385–401. CrossRef
Reeb, B. T., & Conger, K. J. (2009). The unique effect of paternal depressive symptoms on adolescent functioning: Associations with gender and father-adolescent relationship closeness. Journal of Family Psychology,23I, 758–761. CrossRef
Rubin, D. B. (1976). Inference and missing data. Biometrika,63, 581–592. CrossRef
Saarni, C. (1999). The development of emotional competence. New York: Guilford Press.
Shortt, J., Stoolmiller, M., Smith-Shine, J. N., Eddy, J. M., & Sheeber, L. (2010). Maternal emotion coaching, adolescent anger regulation, and siblings’ externalizing symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (in press).
Smith, M., & Walden, T. (1998). Developmental trends in emotion understanding among a diverse sample of African-American preschool children. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,19, 177–197. CrossRef
Stocker, C. M., Richmond, M. K., Rhoades, G. K., & Kiang, L. (2007). Family emotional processes and adolescents’ adjustment. Social Development,16, 310–325. CrossRef
- How Do I Feel About Feelings? Emotion Socialization in Families of Depressed and Healthy Adolescents
Erin C. Hunter
Lynn Fainsilber Katz
Joann Wu Shortt
Nicholas B. Allen
Lisa B. Sheeber
- Springer US