Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Objective: to investigate homotypic and heterotypic longitudinal patterns of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoPh), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in young adolescents from the Dutch general population.
Method: 2,067 individuals (51.4% girls) from a Dutch community sample, who were assessed for the first time when they were aged 10 to 12 years, were followed up across a period of two years. At both assessments, anxiety symptoms were assessed with the RCADS, a self-report questionnaire.
Results: Regression analyses indicated that homotypic continuity was relatively high for SAD, GAD, and SoPh symptoms, and for PD in girls.
Conclusions: In many studies, anxiety disorders are treated as one group of disorders, and some widely used assessment instruments, such as the Child Behavior Checklist, do not even contain scales that tap different anxiety dimensions. In the present study, evidence for homotypic continuity was found, especially for symptoms of separation, social, and generalized anxiety, and for symptoms of panic disorder in girls, underscoring the usefulness of making distinctions between different anxiety constructs.
Achenbach, T. M. (1991a). Manual for the child behavior checklist/ 4-18 and 1991 profiles. Burlington, VT: Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont.
Achenbach, T. M. (1991b). Manual for the youth self-report and 1991 profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Barrett, P. M., Duffy, A. L., Dadds, M. R., & Rapee, R. M. (2001). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of anxiety disorders in children: Long-term (6-year) follow-up. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 69(1), 135–141. CrossRef
Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Marrs, A., Moore, P., Garcia, J., Ablon, S., Mick, E., Gershon, J., & Kearns, M. E. (1997). Panic disorder and agoraphobia in consecutively referred children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 214–223. CrossRef
Bruce, S. E., Yonkers, K. A., Otto, M. W., Eisen, J. L., Weisberg, R. B., Pagano, M., Shea, M. T., & Keller, M. B. (2005). Influence of psychiatric comorbidity on recovery and recurrence in generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and panic disorder: A 12-year prospective study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1179–1187. PubMedCrossRef
Canino, G., Shrout, P. E., Rubio-Stipec, M., Bird, H. R., Bravo, M., Ramirez, R., Chavez, L., Alegria, M., Bauermeister, J. J., Hohmann, A., Ribera, J., Garcia, P., & Martinez-Taboas, A. (2004). The DSM-IV rates of child and adolescent disorders in Puerto Rico: prevalence, correlates, service use, and the effects of impairment. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 61(1), 85–93. PubMedCrossRef
Chorpita, B. F., & Daleiden, E. L. (2000). Properties of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index in children with anxiety disorders: Autonomic and nonautonomic factors. Behavior Therapy, 31(2), 327–349. CrossRef
Cohen, J. (1988). Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Costello, E. J., Angold, A., Burns, B. J., Stangl, D. K., Tweed, D. L., Erkanli, A., & Worthman, C. M. (1996). The great smoky mountains study of youth. Goals, design, methods, and the prevalence of DSM-III-R disorders. Archive of General Psychiatry, 53(12), 1129–1136.
Ferdinand, R. F., Bongers, I. L., Van Der Ende, J., van Gastel, W., Tick, N., Utens, E., & Verhulst, F. C. (2006). Distinctions between separation anxiety and social anxiety in children and adolescents. Behavior Research and Therapy, 2006 Jan 11; [ Epub ahead of print].
Ferdinand, R. F., & Verhulst, F. C. (1995). Psychopathology from adolescence into young adulthood: An 8-year follow-up study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(11), 1586–1594. PubMed
Goodwin, R. D., Faravelli, C., Rosi, S., Cosci, F., Truglia, E., de Graaf, R., & Wittchen, H. U. (2005). The epidemiology of panic disorder and agoraphobia in Europe. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 27 (in press).
Lonigan, C. J., Hooe, E. S., David, C. F., & Kistner, J. A. (1999). Positive and negative affectivity in children: confirmatory factor analysis of a two-factor model and its relation to symptoms of anxiety and depression. Journal fo Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 374–386. CrossRef
Lonigan, C. J., Phillips, B. M., & Hooe, E. S. (2003). Relations of positive and negative affectivity to anxiety and depression in children: Evidence from a latent variable longitudinal study. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 71, 465–481. CrossRef
Nauta, M. H., Scholing, A., Rapee, R. M., Abbott, M., Spence, S. H., & Waters, A. (2004). A parent-report measure of children’s anxiety: psychometric properties and comparison with child-report in a clinic and normal sample. Behavior Research and Therapy, 42, 813–839. CrossRef
Newman, D. L., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Magdol, L., Silva, P. A., & Stanton, W. R. (1996). Psychiatric disorder in a birth cohort of young adults: prevalence, comorbidity, clinical significance, and new case incidence from ages 11 to 21. Journal of Consulting And Clinical Psychology, 64(3), 552–562. PubMedCrossRef
Roza, S. J., Hofstra, M. B., Van Der Ende, J., & Verhulst, F. C. (2003). Stable prediction of mood and anxiety disorders based on behavioral and emotional problems in childhood: a 14-year follow-up during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(12), 2116–2121. PubMedCrossRef
Silberg, J. L., Rutter, M., & Eaves, L. (2001). Genetic and environmental influences on the temporal association between earlier anxiety and later depression in girls: Erratum. Biological Psychiatry, 50(5), 393. CrossRef
Verduin, T. L., & Kendall, P. C. (2003). Differential occurrence of comorbidity within childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child Adolescence Psychology, 32(2), 290–295. CrossRef
Verhulst, F. C., Van Der Ende, J., Ferdinand, R. F., & Kasius, M. C. (1997). The prevalence of DSM-III-R diagnoses in a national sample of Dutch adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54(4), 329–336. PubMed
- Homotypic Versus Heterotypic Continuity of Anxiety Symptoms in Young Adolescents: Evidence for Distinctions Between DSM-IV Subtypes
Robert F. Ferdinand
Frank C. Verhulst
- Springer US