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25-05-2021 | Uitgave 12/2021

Quality of Life Research 12/2021

Health status after penetrating major trauma in Victoria, Australia: a registry-based cohort study

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 12/2021
Melita J. Giummarra, Joanna F. Dipnall, Georgia Gibson, Ben Beck, Belinda J. Gabbe
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Supplementary Information

The online version contains supplementary material available at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11136-021-02876-4.

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Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.



As few studies have examined long-term health after penetrating injury, this population-based registry study sought to assess health outcomes up to 24 months post-injury.


Major trauma patients with penetrating trauma (2009–2017) were included from the Victorian State Trauma Registry (N = 1,067; 102 died, 208 were lost to follow-up). The EQ-5D-3L was used to measure health status at 6, 12 and 24-months. Mixed linear and logistic regressions were used to examine predictors of summary scores, and problems versus no problems on each health dimension.


Average health status summary scores were 0.70 (sd = 0.26) at 6 and 12 months, and 0.72 (sd = 0.26) at 24 months post-injury. Prevalence of problems was consistent over time: mobility (24–26%), self-care (17–20%), usual activities (47–50%), pain/discomfort (44–49%), and anxiety/depression (54–56%). Lower health status and reporting problems was associated with middle-older age, female sex, unemployment; pre-injury disability, comorbid conditions; and assault and firearm injury versus cutting/piercing.


Problems with usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety or depression are common after penetrating major trauma. Risk factor screening in hospital could be used to identify people at risk of poor health outcomes, and to link people at risk with services in hospital or early post-discharge to improve their longer-term health outcomes.

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