COLLABORATOR NAMES FOR THE MEDLINE CITATION. CENTER-TBI participants and investigators. Authors would like to thank Andrea Gini for his help with testing and translating the Italian version of the questionnaire. We are very thankful for the help given by Sesil Lim to generate the non-parametric models. (Cecilia Åkerlund1, Hadie Adams2, Krisztina Amrein3, Nada Andelic4, Lasse Andreassen5, Audny Anke6, Anna Antoni7, Gérard Audibert8, Philippe Azouvi9, Maria Luisa Azzolini10, Ronald Bartels11, Pál Barzó12, Romuald Beauvais13, Ronny Beer14, Bo-Michael Bellander15, Antonio Belli16, Habib Benali17, Maurizio Berardino18, Luigi Beretta10, Morten Blaabjerg19, Peter Bragge20, Alexandra Brazinova21, Vibeke Brinck22, Joanne Brooker23, Camilla Brorsson24, Andras Buki25, Monika Bullinger26, Manuel Cabeleira27, Alessio Caccioppola28, Emiliana Calappi 28, Maria Rosa Calvi10, Peter Cameron29, Guillermo Carbayo Lozano30, Marco Carbonara28, Ana M. Castaño-León61, Giorgio Chevallard31, Arturo Chieregato31, Giuseppe Citerio32, 33, Maryse Cnossen34, Mark Coburn35, Jonathan Coles36, Jamie D. Cooper37, Marta Correia38, Amra Čović 39, Nicola Curry40, Endre Czeiter25, Marek Czosnyka27, Claire Dahyot-Fizelier41, Helen Dawes42, Véronique DeKeyser43, Vincent Degos17, Francesco Della Corte44, Hugo den Boogert11, Bart Depreitere45, Đula Đilvesi 46, Abhishek Dixit47, Emma Donoghue23, Jens Dreier48, Guy-Loup Dulière49, Ari Ercole47, Patrick Esser42, Erzsébet Ezer50, Martin Fabricius51, Valery L. Feigin52, Kelly Foks53, Shirin Frisvold54, Alex Furmanov55, Pablo Gagliardo56, Damien Galanaud17, Dashiell Gantner29, Guoyi Gao57, Pradeep George58, Alexandre Ghuysen59, Lelde Giga60, Ben Glocker61, Jagoš Golubovic46, PedroA. Gomez 62, Johannes Gratz63, Benjamin Gravesteijn34, Francesca Grossi44, RussellL. Gruen64, Deepak Gupta65, JuanitaA. Haagsma34, Iain Haitsma66, Raimund Helbok14, Eirik Helseth67, Lindsay Horton 68, Jilske Huijben34, PeterJ. Hutchinson2, Bram Jacobs69, Stefan Jankowski70, Mike Jarrett22, Ji-yao Jiang57, Kelly Jones52, Mladen Karan46, AngelosG. Kolias2, Erwin Kompanje71, Daniel Kondziella51, Lars-Owe Koskinen24, Noémi Kovács72, Alfonso Lagares62, Linda Lanyon58, Steven Laureys73, Fiona Lecky74, Rolf Lefering75, Valerie Legrand76, Aurelie Lejeune77, Leon Levi78, Roger Lightfoot79, Hester Lingsma34, AndrewI.R. Maas43, Marc Maegele80, Marek Majdan21, Alex Manara81, Geoffrey Manley82, Costanza Martino83, Hugues Maréchal49, Julia Mattern84, Charles McFadyen47, Catherine McMahon85, Béla Melegh86, David Menon47, Tomas Menovsky43, Davide Mulazzi28, Visakh Muraleedharan58, Lynnette Murray29, Nandesh Nair43, Ancuta Negru87, David Nelson1, Virginia Newcombe47, Daan Nieboer34, Quentin Noirhomme73, József Nyirádi3, Otesile Olubukola74, Matej Oresic88, Fabrizio Ortolano28, Aarno Palotie89, 90, 91, Paul M. Parizel92, Jean-François Payen93, Natascha Perera13, Vincent Perlbarg17, Paolo Persona94, Wilco Peul95, Anna Piippo-Karjalainen96, Matti Pirinen89, Horia Ples87, Suzanne Polinder34, Inigo Pomposo30, Jussi P. Posti 97, Louis Puybasset98, Andreea Radoi 99, Arminas Ragauskas100, Rahul Raj96, Malinka Rambadagalla101, Ruben Real39, Jonathan Rhodes102, Sylvia Richardson103, Sophie Richter47, Samuli Ripatti89, Saulius Rocka100, Cecilie Roe104, Olav Roise105, Jonathan Rosand106, Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld107, Christina Rosenlund108, Guy Rosenthal55, Rolf Rossaint35, Sandra Rossi94, Daniel Rueckert61, Martin Rusnák109, Juan Sahuquillo99, Oliver Sakowitz84, 110, Renan Sanchez-Porras110, Janos Sandor111, Nadine Schäfer75, Silke Schmidt112, Herbert Schoechl113, Guus Schoonman114, Rico Frederik Schou115, Elisabeth Schwendenwein7, Charlie Sewalt34, Toril Skandsen116, 117, Peter Smielewski27, Abayomi Sorinola118, Emmanuel Stamatakis47, Simon Stanworth40, Ana Stevanovic35, Robert Stevens119, William Stewart120, Ewout W. Steyerberg34, 121, Nino Stocchetti122, Nina Sundström24, Anneliese Synnot23, 123, Riikka Takala124, Viktória Tamás118, Tomas Tamosuitis125, Mark Steven Taylor21, Braden Te Ao52, Olli Tenovuo97, Alice Theadom52, Matt Thomas81, Dick Tibboel126, Marjolein Timmers71, Christos Tolias127, Tony Trapani29, Cristina Maria Tudora87, Peter Vajkoczy 128, Shirley Vallance29, Egils Valeinis60, Zoltán Vámos50, Gregory Van der
Steen43, Joukje van der Naalt69, Jeroen T.J.M. van Dijck 95, Thomas A. van Essen95, Wim Van Hecke129, Caroline van Heugten130, Dominique Van Praag131, Thijs Vande Vyvere129, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse17, 73, Roel P. J. van Wijk95, Alessia Vargiolu33, Emmanuel Vega77, Kimberley Velt34, Jan Verheyden129, Paul M. Vespa132, Anne Vik116, 117, Rimantas Vilcinis125, Victor Volovici66, Nicole von Steinbüchel39, Daphne Voormolen34, Petar Vulekovic46, Kevin K. W. Wang133, Eveline Wiegers34, Guy Williams47, Lindsay Wilson68, Stefan Wolf134, Zhihui Yang133, Peter Ylén135, Alexander Younsi84, Frederik A. Zeiler47,136, Veronika Zelinkova21, Agate Ziverte60, Tommaso Zoerle28. 1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Section of Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. 2Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Addenbrooke’s Hospital & University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. 3János Szentágothai Research Centre, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary. 4Division of Surgery and Clinical Neuroscience, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. 5Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Northern Norway, Tromso, Norway. 6Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital Northern Norway, Tromso, Norway. 7Trauma Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria. 8Department of Anesthesiology & Intensive Care, University Hospital Nancy, Nancy, France. 9Raymond Poincare hospital, Assistance Publique – Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France. 10Department of Anesthesiology & Intensive Care, S Raffaele University Hospital, Milan, Italy. 11Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. 12Department of Neurosurgery, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary. 13International Projects Management, ARTTIC, Munchen, Germany. 14Department of Neurology, Neurological Intensive Care Unit, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. 15Department of Neurosurgery & Anesthesia & intensive care medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. 16NIHR Surgical Reconstruction and Microbiology Research Centre, Birmingham, UK. 17Anesthesie-Réanimation, Assistance Publique – Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France. 18Department of Anesthesia & ICU, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino—Orthopedic and Trauma Center, Torino, Italy. 19Department of Neurology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark. 20BehaviourWorks Australia, Monash Sustainability Institute, Monash University, Victoria, Australia. 21Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences and Social Work, Trnava University, Trnava, Slovakia. 22Quesgen Systems Inc., Burlingame, California, USA. 23Australian & New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. 24Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Neurosurgery, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. 25Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, University of Pécs, Hungary and Neurotrauma Research Group, János Szentágothai Research Centre, University of Pécs, Hungary. 26Department of Medical Psychology, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. 27Brain Physics Lab, Division of Neurosurgery, Dept of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK. 28Neuro ICU, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy. 29ANZIC Research Centre, Monash University, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 30Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital of Cruces, Bilbao, Spain. 31NeuroIntensive Care, Niguarda Hospital, Milan, Italy. 32School of Medicine and Surgery, Università Milano Bicocca, Milano, Italy. 33NeuroIntensive Care, ASST di Monza, Monza, Italy. 34Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Center-University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 35Department of Anaesthesiology, University Hospital of Aachen, Aachen, Germany. 36Department of Anesthesia & Neurointensive Care, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK. 37School of Public Health & PM, Monash University and The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 38Radiology/MRI department, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, UK. 39Institute of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, Universitätsmedizin Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany. 40Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, UK. 41Intensive Care Unit, CHU Poitiers, Potiers, France. 42Movement Science Group, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK. 43Department of Neurosurgery, Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Edegem, Belgium. 44Department of Anesthesia & Intensive Care, Maggiore Della Carità Hospital, Novara, Italy. 45Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. 46Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical centre of Vojvodina, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia. 47Division of Anaesthesia, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK. 48Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany. 49Intensive Care Unit, CHR Citadelle, Liège, Belgium. 50Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary. 51Departments of Neurology, Clinical Neurophysiology and Neuroanesthesiology, Region Hovedstaden Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. 52National Institute for Stroke and Applied Neurosciences, Faculty of Health and Environmental Studies, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand. 53Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. 54Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive care, University Hospital Northern Norway, Tromso, Norway. 55Department of Neurosurgery, Hadassah-hebrew University Medical center, Jerusalem, Israel. 56Fundación Instituto Valenciano de Neurorrehabilitación (FIVAN), Valencia, Spain. 57Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai Renji hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University/school of medicine, Shanghai, China. 58Karolinska Institutet, INCF International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility, Stockholm, Sweden. 59Emergency Department, CHU, Liège, Belgium. 60Neurosurgery clinic, Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital, Riga, Latvia. 61Department of Computing, Imperial College London, London, UK. 62Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain. 63Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Austria. 64College of Health and Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. 65Department of Neurosurgery, Neurosciences Centre & JPN Apex trauma centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi-110029, India. 66Department of Neurosurgery, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. 67Department of Neurosurgery, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. 68Division of Psychology, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK. 69Department of Neurology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands. 70Neurointensive Care,
Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK. 71Department of Intensive Care and Department of Ethics and Philosophy of Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 72Hungarian Brain Research Program—Grant No. KTIA_13_NAP-A-II/8, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary. 73Cyclotron Research Center, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium. 74Emergency Medicine Research in Sheffield, Health Services Research Section, School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. 75Institute of Research in Operative Medicine (IFOM), Witten/Herdecke University, Cologne, Germany. 76VP Global Project Management CNS, ICON, Paris, France. 77Department of Anesthesiology-Intensive Care, Lille University Hospital, Lille, France. 78Department of Neurosurgery, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel. 79Department of Anesthesiology & Intensive Care, University Hospitals Southhampton NHS Trust, Southhampton, UK. 80Cologne-Merheim Medical Center (CMMC), Department of Traumatology, Orthopedic Surgery and Sportmedicine, Witten/Herdecke University, Cologne, Germany. 81Intensive Care Unit, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, Bristol, UK. 82Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA. 83Department of Anesthesia & Intensive Care,M. Bufalini Hospital, Cesena, Italy. 84Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. 85Department of Neurosurgery, The Walton centre NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK. 86Department of Medical Genetics, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary. 87Department of Neurosurgery, Emergency County Hospital Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania. 88School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden. 89Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. 90Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine; Psychiatric & Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Department of Psychiatry; Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. 91Program in Medical and Population Genetics; The Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA. 92Department of Radiology, Antwerp University Hospital and University of Antwerp, Edegem, Belgium. 93Department of Anesthesiology & Intensive Care, University Hospital of Grenoble, Grenoble, France. 94Department of Anesthesia & Intensive Care, Azienda Ospedaliera Università di Padova, Padova, Italy. 95Dept. of Neurosurgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands and Dept. of Neurosurgery, Medical Center Haaglanden, The Hague, The Netherlands. 96Department of Neurosurgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital. 97Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Neurosurgery and Turku Brain Injury Centre, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland. 98Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Pitié -Salpêtrière Teaching Hospital, Assistance Publique, Hôpitaux de Paris and University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France. 99Neurotraumatology and Neurosurgery Research Unit (UNINN), Vall d'Hebron Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain. 100Department of Neurosurgery, Kaunas University of technology and Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania. 101Department of Neurosurgery, Rezekne Hospital, Latvia. 102Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine NHS Lothian & University of Edinburg, Edinburgh, UK. 103Director, MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge Institute of Public Health, Cambridge, UK. 104Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Oslo University Hospital/University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. 105Division of Surgery and Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. 106Broad Institute, Cambridge MA Harvard Medical School, Boston MA, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston MA, USA. 107National Trauma Research Institute, The Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 108Department of Neurosurgery, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark. 109International Neurotrauma Research Organisation, Vienna, Austria. 110Klinik für Neurochirurgie, Klinikum Ludwigsburg, Ludwigsburg, Germany. 111Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary. 112Department Health and Prevention, University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany. 113Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, AUVA Trauma Hospital, Salzburg, Austria. 114Department of Neurology, Elisabeth-TweeSteden Ziekenhuis, Tilburg, the Netherlands. 115Department of Neuroanesthesia and Neurointensive Care, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark. 116Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway. 117Department of Neurosurgery, St.Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. 118Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary. 119Division of Neuroscience Critical Care, John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA. 120Department of Neuropathology, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital and University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. 121Dept. of Department of Biomedical Data Sciences, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. 122Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Milan University, and Neuroscience ICU, Fondazione IRCCS Cà Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Italy. 123Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group, Centre for Health Communication and Participation, School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia. 124Perioperative Services, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Management, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland. 125Department of Neurosurgery, Kaunas University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania. 126Intensive Care and Department of Pediatric Surgery, Erasmus Medical Center, Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. 127Department of Neurosurgery, Kings college London, London, UK. 128Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. 129icoMetrix NV, Leuven, Belgium. 130Movement Science Group, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK. 131Psychology Department, Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, Belgium. 132Director of Neurocritical Care, University of California, Los Angeles, USA. 133Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA. 134Department of Neurosurgery, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany. 135VTT Technical Research Centre, Tampere, Finland. 136Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada).