Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 3/2013

01-03-2013 | Empirical Research

Goal Setting and Self-Efficacy Among Delinquent, At-Risk and Not At-Risk Adolescents

Auteurs: Annemaree Carroll, Kellie Gordon, Michele Haynes, Stephen Houghton

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 3/2013

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Setting clear achievable goals that enhance self-efficacy and reputational status directs the energies of adolescents into socially conforming or non-conforming activities. This present study investigates the characteristics and relationships between goal setting and self-efficacy among a matched sample of 88 delinquent (18 % female), 97 at-risk (20 % female), and 95 not at-risk adolescents (20 % female). Four hypotheses related to this were tested. Findings revealed that delinquent adolescents reported fewest goals, set fewer challenging goals, had a lower commitment to their goals, and reported lower levels of academic and self-regulatory efficacy than those in the at-risk and not at-risk groups. Discriminant function analysis indicated that adolescents who reported high delinquency goals and low educational and interpersonal goals were likely to belong to the delinquent group, while adolescents who reported high educational and interpersonal goals and low delinquency goals were likely to belong to the not at-risk group. The at-risk and not at-risk groups could not be differentiated. A multinomial logistic regression also revealed that adolescents were more likely to belong to the delinquent group if they reported lower self-regulatory efficacy and lower goal commitment. These findings have important implications for the development of prevention and intervention programs, particularly for those on a trajectory to delinquency. Specifically, programs should focus on assisting adolescents to develop clear self-set achievable goals and support them through the process of attaining them, particularly if the trajectory towards delinquency is to be addressed.
Literatuur
go back to reference Agnew, R. (2006). General strain theory: Current status and directions for further research. In F. T. Cullen, J. P. Wright, & K. R. Blevins (Eds.), Taking stock: The status of criminological theory. Advances in criminological theory (pp. 101–123). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. Agnew, R. (2006). General strain theory: Current status and directions for further research. In F. T. Cullen, J. P. Wright, & K. R. Blevins (Eds.), Taking stock: The status of criminological theory. Advances in criminological theory (pp. 101–123). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
go back to reference Agnew, R., & Petersen, D. (1989). Leisure and delinquency. Social Problems, 36(4), 332–350. CrossRef Agnew, R., & Petersen, D. (1989). Leisure and delinquency. Social Problems, 36(4), 332–350. CrossRef
go back to reference Austin, J. T., & Vancouver, J. B. (1996). Goal constructs in psychology: Structure, process, and content. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 338–375. CrossRef Austin, J. T., & Vancouver, J. B. (1996). Goal constructs in psychology: Structure, process, and content. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 338–375. CrossRef
go back to reference Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2003). Census of population and housing: Socio- economic indexes for areas (SEIFA), Australia, 2001 (ABS Cat. No. 2033.0.30.001). Canberra: Author. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2003). Census of population and housing: Socio- economic indexes for areas (SEIFA), Australia, 2001 (ABS Cat. No. 2033.0.30.001). Canberra: Author.
go back to reference Australian Institute of Criminology. (2006). Australian crime: Facts and figures 2005. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. Australian Institute of Criminology. (2006). Australian crime: Facts and figures 2005. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
go back to reference Australian Institute of Criminology. (2010). Australian crime: Facts and figures 2009. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. Australian Institute of Criminology. (2010). Australian crime: Facts and figures 2009. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
go back to reference Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2006). Juvenile justice in Australia 2000–01 to 2003–04 (Cat. No. JUV 1). Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2006). Juvenile justice in Australia 2000–01 to 2003–04 (Cat. No. JUV 1). Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
go back to reference Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
go back to reference Bandura, A. (1990). Multidimensional scales of perceived self-efficacy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University. Bandura, A. (1990). Multidimensional scales of perceived self-efficacy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.
go back to reference Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Multifaceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. Child Development, 67, 1206–1222. PubMedCrossRef Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Multifaceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. Child Development, 67, 1206–1222. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bandura, A., & Locke, E. A. (2003). Negative self-efficacy and goal effects revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 87–99. PubMedCrossRef Bandura, A., & Locke, E. A. (2003). Negative self-efficacy and goal effects revisited. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 87–99. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Bassi, M., Steca, P., Delle Fave, A. D., & Caprara, G. V. (2007). Academic self-efficacy beliefs and quality of experience in learning. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 301–312. CrossRef Bassi, M., Steca, P., Delle Fave, A. D., & Caprara, G. V. (2007). Academic self-efficacy beliefs and quality of experience in learning. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 301–312. CrossRef
go back to reference Berndt, T. J. (1979). Developmental changes in conformity to peers and parents. Developmental Psychology, 15(6), 608–616. CrossRef Berndt, T. J. (1979). Developmental changes in conformity to peers and parents. Developmental Psychology, 15(6), 608–616. CrossRef
go back to reference Carroll, A. (1995). Characterising the goals of juvenile delinquents: Nature, content and purpose. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 247–260. CrossRef Carroll, A. (1995). Characterising the goals of juvenile delinquents: Nature, content and purpose. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1, 247–260. CrossRef
go back to reference Carroll, A., Baglioni, A. J., Houghton, S., & Bramston, P. (1999a). At-risk and not at-risk primary school children: An examination of goal orientations and social reputations. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 377–392. PubMedCrossRef Carroll, A., Baglioni, A. J., Houghton, S., & Bramston, P. (1999a). At-risk and not at-risk primary school children: An examination of goal orientations and social reputations. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 377–392. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Carroll, A., Durkin, K., Hattie, J., & Houghton, S. (1997). Goal setting among adolescents: A comparison of delinquent, at-risk, and not-at-risk youth. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 441–450. CrossRef Carroll, A., Durkin, K., Hattie, J., & Houghton, S. (1997). Goal setting among adolescents: A comparison of delinquent, at-risk, and not-at-risk youth. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 441–450. CrossRef
go back to reference Carroll, A., Green, S., Houghton, S., & Wood, R. (2003). Reputation enhancement and involvement in delinquency among high school students. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 50(3), 253–273. CrossRef Carroll, A., Green, S., Houghton, S., & Wood, R. (2003). Reputation enhancement and involvement in delinquency among high school students. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 50(3), 253–273. CrossRef
go back to reference Carroll, A., Hattie, J., Durkin, K., & Houghton, S. (2001). Goal-setting and reputation enhancement: Behavioural choices among delinquent, at-risk and not at-risk adolescents. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 6, 165–184. CrossRef Carroll, A., Hattie, J., Durkin, K., & Houghton, S. (2001). Goal-setting and reputation enhancement: Behavioural choices among delinquent, at-risk and not at-risk adolescents. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 6, 165–184. CrossRef
go back to reference Carroll, A., Houghton, S., Durkin, K., & Hattie, J. (2009). Adolescent reputations and risk: Developmental trajectories to delinquency. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-79987-2. CrossRef Carroll, A., Houghton, S., Durkin, K., & Hattie, J. (2009). Adolescent reputations and risk: Developmental trajectories to delinquency. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-79987-2. CrossRef
go back to reference Carroll, A., Houghton, S., Hattie, J., & Durkin, K. (1999b). Adolescent reputation enhancement: Differentiating delinquent and nondelinquent youths. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 40(4), 593–606. CrossRef Carroll, A., Houghton, S., Hattie, J., & Durkin, K. (1999b). Adolescent reputation enhancement: Differentiating delinquent and nondelinquent youths. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 40(4), 593–606. CrossRef
go back to reference Cernkovich, S., & Giordano, P. (1987). Family relationships and delinquency. Criminology, 25(2), 295–319. CrossRef Cernkovich, S., & Giordano, P. (1987). Family relationships and delinquency. Criminology, 25(2), 295–319. CrossRef
go back to reference Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activities approach. American Sociological Review, 44, 588–608. CrossRef Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activities approach. American Sociological Review, 44, 588–608. CrossRef
go back to reference Cornish, D. B. (1993). Theories of action in criminology: Learning theory and rational choice approaches. In R. V. Clarke & M. Felson (Eds.), Routine activity and rational choice (pp. 351–382). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. Cornish, D. B. (1993). Theories of action in criminology: Learning theory and rational choice approaches. In R. V. Clarke & M. Felson (Eds.), Routine activity and rational choice (pp. 351–382). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
go back to reference Deutsch, A. R., Crockett, L. J., Wolff, J. M., & Russell, S. T. (2012). Parent and peer pathways to adolescent delinquency: Variations by ethnicity and neighborhood context. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,. doi: 10.​1007/​s10964-012-9754-y. PubMed Deutsch, A. R., Crockett, L. J., Wolff, J. M., & Russell, S. T. (2012). Parent and peer pathways to adolescent delinquency: Variations by ethnicity and neighborhood context. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,. doi: 10.​1007/​s10964-012-9754-y. PubMed
go back to reference Durkin, K. (1995). Developmental social psychology: From infancy to old age. Oxford: Blackwell. Durkin, K. (1995). Developmental social psychology: From infancy to old age. Oxford: Blackwell.
go back to reference Emler, N. (1984). Differential involvement in delinquency: Toward an interpretation in terms of reputation management. In B. A. Maher & W. B. Maher (Eds.), Progress in experimental personality research (Vol. 13, pp. 173–237). New York: Academic Press. Emler, N. (1984). Differential involvement in delinquency: Toward an interpretation in terms of reputation management. In B. A. Maher & W. B. Maher (Eds.), Progress in experimental personality research (Vol. 13, pp. 173–237). New York: Academic Press.
go back to reference Emler, N., & Reicher, S. (1995). Adolescence and delinquency: The collective management of reputation. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Emler, N., & Reicher, S. (1995). Adolescence and delinquency: The collective management of reputation. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
go back to reference Emler, N., & Reicher, S. (2005). Delinquency: Cause or consequence of social exclusion? In D. Abrams, J. Marques, & M. Hogg (Eds.), The social psychology of inclusion and exclusion (pp. 211–241). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press. Emler, N., & Reicher, S. (2005). Delinquency: Cause or consequence of social exclusion? In D. Abrams, J. Marques, & M. Hogg (Eds.), The social psychology of inclusion and exclusion (pp. 211–241). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
go back to reference Emler, N., Reicher, S., & Ross, A. (1987). The social context of delinquent conduct. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 28(1), 99–109. PubMedCrossRef Emler, N., Reicher, S., & Ross, A. (1987). The social context of delinquent conduct. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 28(1), 99–109. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Farrington, D. (2005). Childhood origins of antisocial behavior. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 12, 177–190. CrossRef Farrington, D. (2005). Childhood origins of antisocial behavior. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 12, 177–190. CrossRef
go back to reference Fernandez, J., Walsh, M., Maller, M., & Wrapson, W. (2009). Police arrests and juvenile cautions, Western Australia 2006. Annual statistical report series no. 2/2009. Perth: University of Western Australia Crime Research Centre. Fernandez, J., Walsh, M., Maller, M., & Wrapson, W. (2009). Police arrests and juvenile cautions, Western Australia 2006. Annual statistical report series no. 2/2009. Perth: University of Western Australia Crime Research Centre.
go back to reference Fleming, C., Woods, C., & Barkin, S. L. (2006). Career goals in the high risk adolescent. Clinical Pediatrics, 45, 757–764. PubMedCrossRef Fleming, C., Woods, C., & Barkin, S. L. (2006). Career goals in the high risk adolescent. Clinical Pediatrics, 45, 757–764. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gonida, E. N., & Leondari, A. (2011). Patterns of motivation among adolescents with biased and accurate self-efficacy beliefs. International Journal of Educational Research, 50(4), 209–220. CrossRef Gonida, E. N., & Leondari, A. (2011). Patterns of motivation among adolescents with biased and accurate self-efficacy beliefs. International Journal of Educational Research, 50(4), 209–220. CrossRef
go back to reference Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
go back to reference Hollenbeck, J. R., Williams, C. R., & Klein, H. (1989). An empirical examination of the antecedents of commitment to difficult goals. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 18–23. CrossRef Hollenbeck, J. R., Williams, C. R., & Klein, H. (1989). An empirical examination of the antecedents of commitment to difficult goals. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 18–23. CrossRef
go back to reference Houghton, S., Tan, C., Khan, U., & Carroll, A. (in press). Rates of self-reported delinquency among Western Australian male and female high school students: The male-female gender gap. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education (Accepted 26 March, 2012). Houghton, S., Tan, C., Khan, U., & Carroll, A. (in press). Rates of self-reported delinquency among Western Australian male and female high school students: The male-female gender gap. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education (Accepted 26 March, 2012).
go back to reference Institute of Medicine Committee on Health and Behavior. (2001). Health and behavior: The interplay of biological, behavioral and societal influences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Institute of Medicine Committee on Health and Behavior. (2001). Health and behavior: The interplay of biological, behavioral and societal influences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
go back to reference Kofler-Westergren, B., Klopf, J., & Mitterauer, B. (2010). Juvenile delinquency: Father absence, conduct disorder, and substance abuse as risk factor triad. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 9, 33–43. CrossRef Kofler-Westergren, B., Klopf, J., & Mitterauer, B. (2010). Juvenile delinquency: Father absence, conduct disorder, and substance abuse as risk factor triad. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 9, 33–43. CrossRef
go back to reference Lanctot, N., Cernkovich, S. A., & Giordano, P. C. (2007). Delinquent behaviour, official delinquency, and gender: Consequences for adulthood functioning and well-being. Criminology, 45, 131–157. CrossRef Lanctot, N., Cernkovich, S. A., & Giordano, P. C. (2007). Delinquent behaviour, official delinquency, and gender: Consequences for adulthood functioning and well-being. Criminology, 45, 131–157. CrossRef
go back to reference Langan-Fox, J. (1991). Motivation and the self concept: Persisting goals of young women and men. International Journal of Psychology, 26(4), 409–427. CrossRef Langan-Fox, J. (1991). Motivation and the self concept: Persisting goals of young women and men. International Journal of Psychology, 26(4), 409–427. CrossRef
go back to reference Latham, G. P., & Locke, E. A. (2006). Enhancing the benefits and overcoming the pitfalls of goal setting. Organizational Dynamics, 35, 332–340. CrossRef Latham, G. P., & Locke, E. A. (2006). Enhancing the benefits and overcoming the pitfalls of goal setting. Organizational Dynamics, 35, 332–340. CrossRef
go back to reference Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1984). Goal setting: A motivational technique that works. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1984). Goal setting: A motivational technique that works. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
go back to reference Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990a). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990a). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
go back to reference Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990b). Work motivation and satisfaction: Light at the end of the tunnel. Psychological Science, 1, 240–246. CrossRef Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990b). Work motivation and satisfaction: Light at the end of the tunnel. Psychological Science, 1, 240–246. CrossRef
go back to reference Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 265–268. CrossRef Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 265–268. CrossRef
go back to reference Louro, M. J., Pieters, R., & Zeelenberg, M. (2007). Dynamics of multiple-goal pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 174–193. PubMedCrossRef Louro, M. J., Pieters, R., & Zeelenberg, M. (2007). Dynamics of multiple-goal pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 174–193. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Mahoney, J. L., & Stattin, H. (2000). Leisure activities and adolescent antisocial behavior: The role of structure and social context. Journal of Adolescence, 23(2), 113–127. PubMedCrossRef Mahoney, J. L., & Stattin, H. (2000). Leisure activities and adolescent antisocial behavior: The role of structure and social context. Journal of Adolescence, 23(2), 113–127. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Massey, E. K., Gebhardt, W. A., & Garnefski, N. (2008). Adolescent goal content and pursuit: A review of the literature from the past 16 years. Developmental Review, 28, 421–460. CrossRef Massey, E. K., Gebhardt, W. A., & Garnefski, N. (2008). Adolescent goal content and pursuit: A review of the literature from the past 16 years. Developmental Review, 28, 421–460. CrossRef
go back to reference Morash, M. (1983). Gangs, groups, and delinquency. The British Journal of Criminology, 23(4), 309–355. Morash, M. (1983). Gangs, groups, and delinquency. The British Journal of Criminology, 23(4), 309–355.
go back to reference Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
go back to reference Nurmi, J. E. (1987). Age, sex, social class, and quality of family interactions as determinants of adolescents’ future orientation: A developmental task interpretation. Adolescence, 22(88), 977–991. PubMed Nurmi, J. E. (1987). Age, sex, social class, and quality of family interactions as determinants of adolescents’ future orientation: A developmental task interpretation. Adolescence, 22(88), 977–991. PubMed
go back to reference Nurmi, J. E. (1989). Planning, motivation, and evaluation in orientation to the future: A latent structure analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 30(1), 64–71. PubMedCrossRef Nurmi, J. E. (1989). Planning, motivation, and evaluation in orientation to the future: A latent structure analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 30(1), 64–71. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Nurmi, J. E. (1991). The development of future- orientation in a life- span context. Research report no. 13. Helsinki, Finland: University of Helsinki, Department of Psychology. Nurmi, J. E. (1991). The development of future- orientation in a life- span context. Research report no. 13. Helsinki, Finland: University of Helsinki, Department of Psychology.
go back to reference Petit, J. W., Grover, K. E., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (2007). Interrelations between psychopathology, psychosocial functioning, and physical health: An integrative perspective. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 7, 453–476. Petit, J. W., Grover, K. E., & Lewinsohn, P. M. (2007). Interrelations between psychopathology, psychosocial functioning, and physical health: An integrative perspective. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 7, 453–476.
go back to reference Pintrich, P. R. (2000). Multiple goals, multiple pathways: The role of goal orientation in learning and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 544–555. CrossRef Pintrich, P. R. (2000). Multiple goals, multiple pathways: The role of goal orientation in learning and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 544–555. CrossRef
go back to reference Pintrich, P. R., & Garcia, T. (1991). Student goal orientation and self-regulation in college classroom. In M. L. Maehr & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Goals and self-regulatory processes (Vol. 7, pp. 371–402). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Pintrich, P. R., & Garcia, T. (1991). Student goal orientation and self-regulation in college classroom. In M. L. Maehr & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Goals and self-regulatory processes (Vol. 7, pp. 371–402). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
go back to reference Pomaki, G., Karoly, P., & Maes, S. (2009). Linking goal progress to subjective well-being at work: The moderating role of goal-related self-efficacy and attainability. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14, 206–218. PubMedCrossRef Pomaki, G., Karoly, P., & Maes, S. (2009). Linking goal progress to subjective well-being at work: The moderating role of goal-related self-efficacy and attainability. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14, 206–218. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Scott, W. D., Dearing, E., Reynolds, W. R., Lindsay, J. E., Baird, G. L., & Hamill, S. (2008). Cognitive self-regulation and depression: Examining academic self-efficacy and goal characteristics in youth of a Northern Plains tribe. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 18, 379–394. CrossRef Scott, W. D., Dearing, E., Reynolds, W. R., Lindsay, J. E., Baird, G. L., & Hamill, S. (2008). Cognitive self-regulation and depression: Examining academic self-efficacy and goal characteristics in youth of a Northern Plains tribe. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 18, 379–394. CrossRef
go back to reference Steinberg, L., & Silverberg, S. B. (1986). The vicissitudes of autonomy in early adolescence. Child Development, 57(4), 841–851. PubMedCrossRef Steinberg, L., & Silverberg, S. B. (1986). The vicissitudes of autonomy in early adolescence. Child Development, 57(4), 841–851. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sugden, J., & Yiannakis, A. (1982). Sport and juvenile delinquency: A theoretical base. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 6(1), 22–30. CrossRef Sugden, J., & Yiannakis, A. (1982). Sport and juvenile delinquency: A theoretical base. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 6(1), 22–30. CrossRef
go back to reference Taylor, N. (2006). Juveniles in detention in Australia, 1981– 2005. Technical and background paper no. 22. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. Taylor, N. (2006). Juveniles in detention in Australia, 19812005. Technical and background paper no. 22. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
go back to reference Taylor, N. (2007). Juveniles in detention in Australia, 1981– 2006. Technical and background paper no. 26. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. Taylor, N. (2007). Juveniles in detention in Australia, 19812006. Technical and background paper no. 26. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
go back to reference Wentzel, K. R. (1994). Relations of social goal pursuit to social acceptance, classroom behavior, and perceived social support. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 173–182. CrossRef Wentzel, K. R. (1994). Relations of social goal pursuit to social acceptance, classroom behavior, and perceived social support. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 173–182. CrossRef
go back to reference Wentzel, K. R. (1999). Social-motivational processes and interpersonal relationships: Implications for understanding motivation at school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 76–97. CrossRef Wentzel, K. R. (1999). Social-motivational processes and interpersonal relationships: Implications for understanding motivation at school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 76–97. CrossRef
go back to reference Western Australian Legislative Assembly. (1992). The final report of the Select Committee on Youth Affairs. Perth: Office of the Clerk of the Legislative Assembly. Western Australian Legislative Assembly. (1992). The final report of the Select Committee on Youth Affairs. Perth: Office of the Clerk of the Legislative Assembly.
go back to reference Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (1989). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theory, research and practice. New York: Springer. CrossRef Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (1989). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theory, research and practice. New York: Springer. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Goal Setting and Self-Efficacy Among Delinquent, At-Risk and Not At-Risk Adolescents
Auteurs
Annemaree Carroll
Kellie Gordon
Michele Haynes
Stephen Houghton
Publicatiedatum
01-03-2013
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 3/2013
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9799-y