Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
By examining the relationship between trans identity, bathroom safety and wellbeing among high school students, this article empirically investigates how educational institutions operate as sites through which gender is negotiated in ways that are consequential for trans youth. We draw cross-sectional survey data, from a multi-school climate survey (n = 1046) conducted in the Midwestern United States, to examine three aspects of high school students’ wellbeing: safety at school, self-esteem, and grades. The sample included students in 9th–12th grade who identified as trans (9.2%) and cisgender (41.2% boys, 49.6% girls), as well as LGBQ (21.6%) and heterosexual (78.4%). Most respondents were monoracial white (65.8%), monoracial Black (12.4%), and multiracial (14.1%). Using mediation and moderation linear regression models, we show that feeling safe using school facilities helps to explain widespread inequalities between trans and cisgender students. Based on these results, we suggest that in order to address disparities in educational outcomes between trans and cisgender students, as well as to improve student wellbeing in general, policies and practices need to ensure that all students have the right to safely access bathrooms and school facilities.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Aragon, S. R., Poteat, V. P., Espelage, D. L., & Koenig, B. W. (2014). The influence of peer victimization on educational outcomes for LGBTQ and non-LGBTQ high school students. Journal of LGBT Youth, 11(1), 1–19. CrossRef
Barker-Plummer, B. (2013). Fixing Gwen: News and the mediation of (trans) gender challenges. Feminist Media Studies, 13(4), 710–724. CrossRef
Baum, J., Brill, S., Brown, J., Delpercio, A., Khan, E., Kenney, L., & Nicoll, A. (2013). Supporting and caring for our gender expansive youth. Washington, D.C., WA: Human Rights Campaign Foundation and Gender Spectrum.
Bender-Baird, K. (2016). Peeing under surveillance: Bathrooms, gender policing, and hate violence. Gender, Place & Culture, 23(7), 983–988. CrossRef
Breen, R., & Jonsson, J. O. (2005). Inequality of opportunity in comparative perspective: Recent research on educational attainment and social mobility. Annual Review of Sociology, 31, 223–243. CrossRef
Browne, K. (2004). Genderism and the bathroom problem:(Re) materialising sexed sites,(re) creating sexed bodies. Gender, Place & Culture, 11(3), 331–346. CrossRef
Buchmann, C., DiPrete, T. A., & McDaniel, A. (2008). Gender inequalities in education. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 319–337. CrossRef
Esmaeili, S., & Arabmofrad, A. (2015). A critical discourse analysis of family and friends textbooks: Representation of genderism. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 4(4), 55–61.
Fabricant, M. (2010). Organizing for educational justice: The campaign for public school reform in the South Bronx. Minneapolis, MN: U of Minnesota. CrossRef
Fischer, D., Bellinger, L. B., Horn, S. S., & Sullivan, S. L. (2016). Advocacy to support gender identity development in schools in the face of organized backlash. In S. Russell, S. Horn (Eds.), Sexual orientation, gender identity, and schooling: The nexus of research, practice, and policy (pp. 219–237). London: Oxford University Press.
Gates, G.J. (2011). Issue brief: How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender? http://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/Gates-How-Many-People-LGBT-Apr-2011.pdf Accessed 23 Dec 2016
Grant, J., Lisa, M., Tanis, J., Harrison, J., Herman, J., & Keisling, M. (2011). Injustice at every turn: A report of the national transgender discrimination survey. Washington, WA: National Center for Transgender Equality and National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.
Greytak, E., Kosciw, J., & Diaz, E. (2009). Harsh realities: The experiences of transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York, NY: GLSEN.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: Guilford.
Hayes, A.F., & Rockwood, N.J. (2016). Regression-based statistical mediation and moderation analysis in clinical research: Observations, recommendations, and implementation, Behaviour Research and Therapy, doi:10.1016/ j.brat.2016.11.001.
Herman, J., Flores, A., Brown, T., Wilson, B., & Conron, K. (2017). Age of individuals who identify as transgender in the United States. Los Angeles: Williams Institute.
Hill, D. B., & Willoughby, B. L. B. (2005). The development and validation of the genderism and transphobia scale. Sex Roles, 53(7-8), 531–544. CrossRef
Ingrey, J. C. (2012). The public school washroom as analytic space for troubling gender: Investigating the spatiality of gender through students’ self-knowledge. Gender and Education, 24(7), 799–817. CrossRef
James, S. E., Herman, J. L., Rankin, S., Keisling, M., Mottet, L., & Anafi, M. (2016). The report of the 2015 U.S. transgender survey. Washington, WA: National Center for Transgender Equality.
Johnson, J. (2014). Transgender youth in public schools: Why identity matters in the restroom. William Mitchell Law Rev Sua Sponte, 40, 63–98.
Julia, S. (2007). Whipping girl: A transsexual woman on sexism and the scapegoating of femininity. Emeryville, CA: Seal.
Kosciw, J. G., Greytak, E. A., Giga, N. M., Villenas, C., & Danischewski, D. (2016). 2015 national school climate survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer youth in our nation’s schools. New York, NY: GLSEN.
Koyama, E. (2003). The transfeminist manifesto. In R. Dicker, A. Piepmeiser (Eds.), Catching a wave: Reclaiming feminism for the 21st century (pp. 244–262). Lebanon, NH: Northeastern University Press.
Larsen, H.G. (2016). The antecedent of fear in the public discourse: From Donald Trump's nativism to transgender bathroom access. International Journal of School and Cognitive Psychology 3(2): 177.
Lee, V.E.. (2001). Restructuring high schools for equity and excellence: What works. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Liptak, A. (2016 October 28). Supreme court to rule in transgender access case. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/29/us/politics/supreme-court-to-rule-in-transgender-access-case.html?_r=0
Lombardi, E. L., Wilchins, R. A., Priesing, D., & Malouf, D. (2002). Gender violence: Transgender experiences with violence and discrimination. Journal of Homosexuality, 42(1), 89–101. CrossRef
Moffit, R. E. (2015). Keeping the John open to Jane: How California’s bathroom bill brings transgender rights out of the water closet. Georgetown Journal of Gender and the Law, 16, 475.
Nadal, K. L., & Griffin, K. E. (2011). Microaggressions: A root of bullying, violence, and victimization toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths. The Psychology of Teen Violence and Victimization, 1, 3–22.
Oakes, J., & Lipton, M. (2002). Struggling for educational equity in diverse communities: School reform as social movement. Journal of Educational Change, 3(3-4), 383–406. CrossRef
Peters, J.W., Becker, J., & Hirschfield Davis, J. (2017, February 22). Trump rescinds rules on bathrooms for transgender students. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com.
Reisner, S. L., Hughto, J. M. W., Dunham, E. E., Heflin, K. J., Begenyi, J. B. G., Coffey-Esquivel, J., & Cahill, S. (2015). Legal protections in public accommodations settings: A critical public health issue for transgender and gender‐nonconforming people. Milbank Quarterly, 93(3), 484–515. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Robinson, J. P., & Espelage, D. L. (2011). Inequities in educational and psychological outcomes between LGBTQ and straight students in middle and high school. Educational Researcher, 40(7), 315–330. CrossRef
Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Seelman, K. L. (2014). Transgender individuals’ access to college housing and bathrooms: Findings from the national transgender discrimination survey. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 26(2), 186–206. CrossRef
Seelman, K. L. (2016). Transgender adults’ access to college bathrooms and housing and the relationship to suicidality. Journal of Homosexuality, 10, 1–22.
Solorzano, D. G., & Ornelas, A. (2004). A critical race analysis of Latina/o and African American advanced placement enrollment in public high schools. The High School Journal, 87(3), 15–26. CrossRef
Stanley, E. A., Smith, N. (Eds.) (2011). Captive genders: Trans embodiment and the prison industrial complex. Baltimore, MD: AK.
Sterling, M. (2014). To pee or not to pee-where is the question: Transgender students and the right to use public school restrooms. Cardozo JL & Gender, 21, 757.
Sutton, H. (2016). Transgender college students more at risk for suicide when denied bathroom, housing rights. Campus Security Report, 13(2), 9. CrossRef
Szczerbinski, K. (2016). Education connection: The importance of allowing students to use bathrooms and locker rooms reflecting their gender identity. Children’s Legal Rights Journal, 36, 153.
Tobin, H. J., & Levi, J. (2013). Securing equal access to sex-segregated facilities for transgender students. Wisconsin Journal of Law, Gender & Society, 28, 301–330.
Toomey, R.B. (2014). More than just queer or trans*: Exploring youth risk and resilience through a quantitative intersectional lens. In Keynote address, 2nd Annual LGBT Research Symposium. University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign School of Social Work. Champaign, IL: Author.
U.S. Department of Education. (2015). Every student succeeds act. Washington, D.C., WA: United States Department of Education.
Weinberg, J. D. (2009). Transgender bathroom usage: A privileging of biology and physical difference in the law. Buffalo Journal of Gender, Law & Social Policy, 18, 147.
Woolley, S. W. (2016). Contesting silence, claiming space: Gender and sexuality in the neo-liberal public high school. Gender and Education, 29, 84–99. CrossRef
Yosso, T. J. (2006). Critical race counterstories along the Chicana/Chicano educational pipeline. London: Routledge.
- Gender Identity Disparities in Bathroom Safety and Wellbeing among High School Students
Laura J. Wernick
- Springer US