Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 4/2007

01-05-2007 | Original Paper

Gender Differences in the Educational Expectations of Urban, Low-Income African American Youth: The Role of Parents and the School

Auteurs: Dana Wood, Rachel Kaplan, Vonnie C. McLoyd

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 4/2007

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

This study examined how youths’ gender is related to the educational expectations of urban, low-income African American youth, their parents, and their teachers. As predicted, African American boys (ages 9–16) reported lower expectations for future educational attainment than did their female counterparts. Parents and teachers also reported lower expectations for African American boys (ages 6–16) than for girls. These findings held even when controlling for academic achievement. Contrary to predictions, the magnitude of the difference in expectations for males vs. females did not increase as a function of youths’ age. In keeping with our hypotheses, parental expectations fully mediated the relation between youths’ gender and youths’ expectations. Finally, certain school-based factors (i.e., positive teacher expectations and positive youth perceptions of the school environment) appeared to protect youths’ expectations from the deleterious impact of low parental expectations.

Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:

BSL Psychologie Totaal

Met BSL Psychologie Totaal blijf je als professional steeds op de hoogte van de nieuwste ontwikkelingen binnen jouw vak. Met het online abonnement heb je toegang tot een groot aantal boeken, protocollen, vaktijdschriften en e-learnings op het gebied van psychologie en psychiatrie. Zo kun je op je gemak en wanneer het jou het beste uitkomt verdiepen in jouw vakgebied.

Voetnoten
1
Household structure was coded in this manner because prior research shows that, among African Americans, never-married women living in concentrated areas of poverty suffer greater economic hardship than women in all other household structure categories (e.g., Franklin et al., 1995).
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Adams M, Bell L, Griffen P (1997) Teaching for diversity and social justice. Routledge, New York Adams M, Bell L, Griffen P (1997) Teaching for diversity and social justice. Routledge, New York
go back to reference Aiken LS, West SG (1991) Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Sage Publications, New York Aiken LS, West SG (1991) Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Sage Publications, New York
go back to reference Amato PR (1998) More than money? Men’s contributions to their children’s lives. In: Booth A, Crouter AC (eds) Men in families: When do they get involved? What difference does it make? Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Mahwah, NJ, pp 241–278 Amato PR (1998) More than money? Men’s contributions to their children’s lives. In: Booth A, Crouter AC (eds) Men in families: When do they get involved? What difference does it make? Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Mahwah, NJ, pp 241–278
go back to reference Brody G, Dorsey S, Forehand R, Armistead L (2002) Unique and protective contributions of parenting and classroom processes to the adjustment of African American children living in single-parent families. Child Dev 73(1):274–286 PubMedCrossRef Brody G, Dorsey S, Forehand R, Armistead L (2002) Unique and protective contributions of parenting and classroom processes to the adjustment of African American children living in single-parent families. Child Dev 73(1):274–286 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cook TD, Church MB, Ajanaku S, Shadish WR, Kim J, Cohen R (1996) The development of occupational aspirations and expectations among inner-city boys. Child Dev 67:3368–3385 PubMedCrossRef Cook TD, Church MB, Ajanaku S, Shadish WR, Kim J, Cohen R (1996) The development of occupational aspirations and expectations among inner-city boys. Child Dev 67:3368–3385 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Davis-Kean PE (2005) The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: The indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. J Fam Psychol 19:294–304 PubMedCrossRef Davis-Kean PE (2005) The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: The indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. J Fam Psychol 19:294–304 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Day JC, Newburger EC (2002) The big payoff: Educational attainment and synthetic estimates of work-life earnings. (Current population reports, special studies). Commerce Dept., Economics and Statistics Administration, Census Bureau, Washington, DC, pp 23–210 Day JC, Newburger EC (2002) The big payoff: Educational attainment and synthetic estimates of work-life earnings. (Current population reports, special studies). Commerce Dept., Economics and Statistics Administration, Census Bureau, Washington, DC, pp 23–210
go back to reference Dornbusch SM, Carlsmith JM, Bushwall SJ, Ritter PL, Leiderman H, Hastorf AH, Gross RT (1985) Single parents, extended households, and the control of adolescents. Child Dev 56:326–341 PubMedCrossRef Dornbusch SM, Carlsmith JM, Bushwall SJ, Ritter PL, Leiderman H, Hastorf AH, Gross RT (1985) Single parents, extended households, and the control of adolescents. Child Dev 56:326–341 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Eccles JS, Wigfield A (2002) Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annu Rev Psychol 53:109–132 PubMedCrossRef Eccles JS, Wigfield A (2002) Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annu Rev Psychol 53:109–132 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Englund MM, Luckner AE, Whaley GJL, Egelund B (2004) Children’s achievement in early elementary school: Longitudinal effects of parental involvement, expectations, and quality of assistance. J Educ Psychol 96:723–730 CrossRef Englund MM, Luckner AE, Whaley GJL, Egelund B (2004) Children’s achievement in early elementary school: Longitudinal effects of parental involvement, expectations, and quality of assistance. J Educ Psychol 96:723–730 CrossRef
go back to reference Ensminger ME, Slucarcick AL (1992) Paths to high school graduation or dropout: A longitudinal study of a first grade cohort. Sociol Educ 65:95–113 CrossRef Ensminger ME, Slucarcick AL (1992) Paths to high school graduation or dropout: A longitudinal study of a first grade cohort. Sociol Educ 65:95–113 CrossRef
go back to reference Franklin DL, Smith SE, McMiller WEP (1995) Correlates of marital status among African American mothers in Chicago neighborhoods of concentrated poverty. J Marriage Fam 57:141–152 CrossRef Franklin DL, Smith SE, McMiller WEP (1995) Correlates of marital status among African American mothers in Chicago neighborhoods of concentrated poverty. J Marriage Fam 57:141–152 CrossRef
go back to reference Gill S, Reynolds AJ (1999) Educational expectations and school achievement of urban African American children. J School Psychol 37:403–424 CrossRef Gill S, Reynolds AJ (1999) Educational expectations and school achievement of urban African American children. J School Psychol 37:403–424 CrossRef
go back to reference Graham S, Taylor AZ, Hudley C (1998) Exploring achievement values among ethnic minority adolescents. J Educ Psychol 90(4):606–620 CrossRef Graham S, Taylor AZ, Hudley C (1998) Exploring achievement values among ethnic minority adolescents. J Educ Psychol 90(4):606–620 CrossRef
go back to reference Hall RE (2001) The ball curve: Calculated racism and the stereotype of African American men. J Black Stud 32:104–119 CrossRef Hall RE (2001) The ball curve: Calculated racism and the stereotype of African American men. J Black Stud 32:104–119 CrossRef
go back to reference Halle TG, Kurtz-Costes B, Mahoney JL (1997) Family influences on school achievement in low-income, African American children. J Educ Psychol 89:527–537 CrossRef Halle TG, Kurtz-Costes B, Mahoney JL (1997) Family influences on school achievement in low-income, African American children. J Educ Psychol 89:527–537 CrossRef
go back to reference Harknett K, McLanahan SS (2004) Racial and ethnic differences in marriage after the birth of a child. Am Sociol Rev 69(6):790–811 CrossRef Harknett K, McLanahan SS (2004) Racial and ethnic differences in marriage after the birth of a child. Am Sociol Rev 69(6):790–811 CrossRef
go back to reference Hill SA (1999) African American children: Socialization and development in families. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA Hill SA (1999) African American children: Socialization and development in families. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA
go back to reference Hockaday C, Crase SJ, Shelley MC, Stockdale DF A prospective study of adolescent pregnancy. J Adolesc 23:423–438 Hockaday C, Crase SJ, Shelley MC, Stockdale DF A prospective study of adolescent pregnancy. J Adolesc 23:423–438
go back to reference Hudley C, Graham S (2002) Stereotypes of achievement striving among early adolescents. Soc Psychol Educ 5:201–224 CrossRef Hudley C, Graham S (2002) Stereotypes of achievement striving among early adolescents. Soc Psychol Educ 5:201–224 CrossRef
go back to reference Huston AC, Duncan GJ, Granger R, Bos J, McLoyd V, Mistry R, Crosby D, Gibson C, Magnuson K, Romich J, Ventura A (2001) Work-based antipoverty programs for parents can enhance the school performance and social behavior of children. Child Dev 72:318–336 PubMedCrossRef Huston AC, Duncan GJ, Granger R, Bos J, McLoyd V, Mistry R, Crosby D, Gibson C, Magnuson K, Romich J, Ventura A (2001) Work-based antipoverty programs for parents can enhance the school performance and social behavior of children. Child Dev 72:318–336 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Huston AC, Miller C, Richburg-Hayes L, Duncan GJ, Eldred CA, Weisner TS et al (2003) New Hope for families and children: Five-year results of a program to reduce poverty and reform welfare. Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, New York Huston AC, Miller C, Richburg-Hayes L, Duncan GJ, Eldred CA, Weisner TS et al (2003) New Hope for families and children: Five-year results of a program to reduce poverty and reform welfare. Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, New York
go back to reference Institute for Higher Education Policy (1998) Reaping the benefits: Defining the public and private value of going to college. The new millennium project on higher education costs, pricing, and productivity. Author, Washington, DC Institute for Higher Education Policy (1998) Reaping the benefits: Defining the public and private value of going to college. The new millennium project on higher education costs, pricing, and productivity. Author, Washington, DC
go back to reference Jacobs JE, Lanza S, Osgood DW, Eccles JS, Wigfield A (2002) Changes in children’s self-competence and values: Gender and domain differences across grades one through twelve. Child Dev 73:509–527 PubMedCrossRef Jacobs JE, Lanza S, Osgood DW, Eccles JS, Wigfield A (2002) Changes in children’s self-competence and values: Gender and domain differences across grades one through twelve. Child Dev 73:509–527 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Jeynes WH (2003) The effects of the religious commitment of twelfth graders living in non-intact families on their academic achievement. Marriage Fam Rev 35:77–97 CrossRef Jeynes WH (2003) The effects of the religious commitment of twelfth graders living in non-intact families on their academic achievement. Marriage Fam Rev 35:77–97 CrossRef
go back to reference Joseph J (1996) School factors and delinquency: A study of African American youths. J Black Stud 26:340–355 CrossRef Joseph J (1996) School factors and delinquency: A study of African American youths. J Black Stud 26:340–355 CrossRef
go back to reference Jussim L, Eccles J, Madon S (1996) Social perception, social stereotypes, and teacher expectations: Accuracy and the quest for the powerful self-fulfilling prophecy. Adv Exp Soc Psychol 28:281–388 CrossRef Jussim L, Eccles J, Madon S (1996) Social perception, social stereotypes, and teacher expectations: Accuracy and the quest for the powerful self-fulfilling prophecy. Adv Exp Soc Psychol 28:281–388 CrossRef
go back to reference Kaplan R, McLoyd VC, Purtell K (2006) New Hope and its Impact on Adolescent Employment and Future Prospects. Paper presented as part of panel Impacts of a Policy to Promote Employment and Reduce Poverty for Low-Income Parents: New Hope After 8 Years at the annual meeting of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, Madison, WI Kaplan R, McLoyd VC, Purtell K (2006) New Hope and its Impact on Adolescent Employment and Future Prospects. Paper presented as part of panel Impacts of a Policy to Promote Employment and Reduce Poverty for Low-Income Parents: New Hope After 8 Years at the annual meeting of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management, Madison, WI
go back to reference King JE (2000) Gender equity in higher education: Are male students at a disadvantage? American Council on Education, Center for Policy Analysis King JE (2000) Gender equity in higher education: Are male students at a disadvantage? American Council on Education, Center for Policy Analysis
go back to reference Osborne JW (1997) Race and academic disidentification. J Educ Psychol 89:728–735 CrossRef Osborne JW (1997) Race and academic disidentification. J Educ Psychol 89:728–735 CrossRef
go back to reference Orfield G, Losen D, Wald J, Swanson C (2004) Losing our future: How minority youth are being left behind by the graduation rate crisis. The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University. Contributors: Advocates for Children of New York, The Civil Society Institute, Cambridge, MA Orfield G, Losen D, Wald J, Swanson C (2004) Losing our future: How minority youth are being left behind by the graduation rate crisis. The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University. Contributors: Advocates for Children of New York, The Civil Society Institute, Cambridge, MA
go back to reference Peter K, Horn L (2005) Gender differences in participation and completion of undergraduate education and how they have changed over time (NCES 2005–169). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC Peter K, Horn L (2005) Gender differences in participation and completion of undergraduate education and how they have changed over time (NCES 2005–169). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC
go back to reference Ross S, Jackson J (1991) Teachers’ expectations for Black males’ and Black females’ academic achievement. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 17:78–82 CrossRef Ross S, Jackson J (1991) Teachers’ expectations for Black males’ and Black females’ academic achievement. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 17:78–82 CrossRef
go back to reference Sirin S R, Rogers-Sirin L Exploring school engagement of middle class African Americans. Youth Soc 35:323–340 Sirin S R, Rogers-Sirin L Exploring school engagement of middle class African Americans. Youth Soc 35:323–340
go back to reference Sobel ME (1982) Asymptotic intervals for indirect effects in structural equations models. In: Leinhart S (ed) Sociological methodology 1982. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp 290–312 Sobel ME (1982) Asymptotic intervals for indirect effects in structural equations models. In: Leinhart S (ed) Sociological methodology 1982. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp 290–312
go back to reference Smeeding TM, Torrey BB (1988) Poor children in rich countries. Science 242(4880):873–877 Smeeding TM, Torrey BB (1988) Poor children in rich countries. Science 242(4880):873–877
go back to reference Tiedemann J (2000) Parents’ gender stereotypes and teachers’ beliefs as predictors of children’s concept of their mathematical ability in elementary school. J Educ Psychol 92:144–151 CrossRef Tiedemann J (2000) Parents’ gender stereotypes and teachers’ beliefs as predictors of children’s concept of their mathematical ability in elementary school. J Educ Psychol 92:144–151 CrossRef
go back to reference Trusty J (2002) African Americans’ educational expectations: Longitudinal causal models for women and men. J Couns Dev 80:332–345 Trusty J (2002) African Americans’ educational expectations: Longitudinal causal models for women and men. J Couns Dev 80:332–345
go back to reference Trusty J, Harris MBC (1999) Lost talent: Predictors of the stability of educational expectations across adolescence. J Adolesc Res 14:359–382 CrossRef Trusty J, Harris MBC (1999) Lost talent: Predictors of the stability of educational expectations across adolescence. J Adolesc Res 14:359–382 CrossRef
go back to reference Tucker MB, Mitchell-Kernan C (eds) (1995) The decline in marriage among African Americans: Causes, consequences, and policy implications. Russell Sage Foundation, New York Tucker MB, Mitchell-Kernan C (eds) (1995) The decline in marriage among African Americans: Causes, consequences, and policy implications. Russell Sage Foundation, New York
go back to reference Udry JR (2003) The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), Waves I & II, 1994–1996; Wave III, 2001–2002 [machine-readable data file and documentation]. Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC Udry JR (2003) The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), Waves I & II, 1994–1996; Wave III, 2001–2002 [machine-readable data file and documentation]. Carolina Population Center, UNC-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC
go back to reference Van Matre JC, Valentine JC, Cooper H (2000) Effects’ of students’ after- school activities on teachers’ academic expectancies. Contemp Educ Psychol 25:167–183 PubMedCrossRef Van Matre JC, Valentine JC, Cooper H (2000) Effects’ of students’ after- school activities on teachers’ academic expectancies. Contemp Educ Psychol 25:167–183 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Washington V (1982) Racial differences in teacher perceptions of first and fourth grade pupils on selected characteristics. J Negro Educ 51:60–72 CrossRef Washington V (1982) Racial differences in teacher perceptions of first and fourth grade pupils on selected characteristics. J Negro Educ 51:60–72 CrossRef
go back to reference Wigfield A, Eccles JS (2000) Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. Contemp Educ Psychol 25:68–81 PubMedCrossRef Wigfield A, Eccles JS (2000) Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. Contemp Educ Psychol 25:68–81 PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wilson JW (1996) When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor. Alfred A. Knopf, New York Wilson JW (1996) When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor. Alfred A. Knopf, New York
go back to reference Wood D, Okeke NA, Kurtz-Costes B, Rowley S (2006) Do parents’ academic gender stereotypes contribute to differential educational expectations for sons and daughters in African American families? Poster presented at the North Carolina Psychological Association Poster Session. Charlotte, NC. Wood D, Okeke NA, Kurtz-Costes B, Rowley S (2006) Do parents’ academic gender stereotypes contribute to differential educational expectations for sons and daughters in African American families? Poster presented at the North Carolina Psychological Association Poster Session. Charlotte, NC.
go back to reference Woodcock RW, Johnson MB (1990) Woodcock-Johnson psycho-educational battery, Revised. DLM Teaching Resources, Allen, TX Woodcock RW, Johnson MB (1990) Woodcock-Johnson psycho-educational battery, Revised. DLM Teaching Resources, Allen, TX
Metagegevens
Titel
Gender Differences in the Educational Expectations of Urban, Low-Income African American Youth: The Role of Parents and the School
Auteurs
Dana Wood
Rachel Kaplan
Vonnie C. McLoyd
Publicatiedatum
01-05-2007
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 4/2007
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-007-9186-2