Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Participating in school-based activities is linked to positive academic engagement and achievement, but less is known about how peer relationships within activities affect these outcomes. The current study examined friends in extracurricular activities as a predictor of academic outcomes in multiethnic middle schools in California. Specifically, the mediating role of school belonging, and interactions by ethnicity and type of activity, were examined in a sample including African American or Black, East or Southeast Asian, White, and Latino youth in extracurricular activities (N = 2268; Mage = 13.36 in eighth grade; 54% female). The results of multilevel mediational models suggested that school belonging mediated the link between friends in activities and academic outcomes, and these findings replicated across groups based on ethnicity and the type of activity in which one was involved in general. These results are discussed in terms of how activities can be structured to promote positive peer relations in ways that are linked with academic engagement and achievement.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Allison, P. D. (2012). Handling missing data by maximum likelihood. SAS Global Forum Proceedings, Orlando, FL, 1–21.
Bartko, W. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2003). Adolescent participation in structured and unstructured activities: A person-oriented analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32(4), 233–241. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023056425648.
Bauer, D. J., Preacher, K. J., & Gil, K. M. (2006). Conceptualizing and testing random indirect effects and moderated mediation in multilevel models: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 11(2), 142–163. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.11.2.142. PubMed
Benner, A. D., Graham, S., & Mistry, R. S. (2008). Discerning direct and mediated effects of ecological structures and processes on adolescents’ educational outcomes. Developmental Psychology, 44(3), 840–854. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1680. PubMed
Brown, R., & Evans, W. P. (2002). Extracurricular activity and ethnicity: Creating greater school connection among diverse student populations. Urban Education, 37(1), 41–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085902371004.
California Department of Education. (2011). DataQuest [Data file and code book]. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ds/.
Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Competence, autonomy and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Minnesota symposium on child psychology, Vol. 23: Self processes in development (pp. 43–77). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Darling, N., Caldwell, L. L., & Smith, R. (2005). Participation in school-based extracurricular activities and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Leisure Research, 37(1), 51–76. CrossRef
Denault, A., & Poulin, F. (2016). What adolescents experience in organized activities: Profiles of individual and social experiences. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 4240–4248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2015.11.004.
Dotterer, A. M., McHale, S. M., & Crouter, A. C. (2007). Implications of out-of-school activities for school engagement in African American adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(4), 391–401. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-006-9161-3.
Dworkin, J. B., Larson, R., & Hansen, D. (2003). Adolescents’ accounts of growth experiences in youth activities. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32(1), 17–26. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021076222321.
Eccles, J. S., & Barber, B. L. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band: What kind of extracurricular involvement matters? Journal of Adolescent Research, 14(1), 10–43. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558499141003.
Eccles, J. S. & Midgley, C. (1989). Stage-environment fit: Developmentally appropriate classrooms for young adolescents. In: In C. Ames, R. Ames(eds.) Research on Motivation in Education (Vol. 3). San Diego: Academic Press.
Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Is extracurricular participation associated with beneficial outcomes? Concurrent and longitudinal relations. Developmental Psychology, 42(4), 698–713. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.1248. PubMed
Fredricks, J. A., & Eccles, J. S. (2010). Breadth of extracurricular participation and adolescent adjustment among African-American and European-American youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(2), 307–333. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2009.00627.x. PubMedPubMedCentral
Fredricks, J. A., & Simpkins, S. D. (2012). Promoting positive youth development through organized after‐school activities: Taking a closer look at participation of ethnic minority youth. Child Development Perspectives, 6(3), 280–287. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00206.x.
Gottfredson, G. (1984). Effective school battery. Odessa, FL: Psychological assessment resources, Inc.
Gutiérrez, V., Larson, R. W., Raffaeli, M., Fernandez, M., & Guzman, S. (2017). How staff of youth programs respond to culture-related incidents: Nonengagement vs. going “full-right-in”. Journal of Adolescent Research, 32, 64–93. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558416664028.
Im, M. H., Hughes, J. N., Cao, Q., & Kwok, O. (2016). Effects of extracurricular participation during middle school on academic motivation and achievement at Grade 9. American Educational Research Journal, 53(5), 1343–1375. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831216667479.
Larson, R. W., Hansen, D. M., & Moneta, G. (2006). Differing profiles of developmental experiences across types of organized youth activities. Developmental Psychology, 42(5), 849–863. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.1999. PubMed
Lin, A. R., Menjívar, C., Ettekal, A. V., Simpkins, S. D., Gaskin, E. R., & Pesch, A. (2016). ‘They will post a law about playing soccer’ and other ethnic/racial microaggressions in organized activities experienced by Mexican-origin families. Journal of Adolescent Research, 31(5), 557–581. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558415620670.
Loder, T. L., & Hirsch, B. J. (2003). Inner-city youth development organizations: The salience of peer ties among early adolescent girls. Applied Developmental Science, 7(1), 2–12. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532480XADS0701_1.
Masten, C. L., Juvonen, J., & Spatzier, A. (2008). Relative importance of parents and peers: Differences in academic and social behaviors at three grade levels spanning late childhood and early adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 29, 773–799. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431608325504.
McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., & Cook, J. M. (2001). Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual Review of Sociology, 27415-27444. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.415.
Schaefer, D. S., Simpkins, S. D., & Ettekal, A. V. (2018). Can extracurricular activities reduce adolescent race/ethnic friendship segregation? In D. Alwin, D. Felmlee & D. Kreager (Eds.), Together Through Time: Social Networks and the Life Course.
Selig, J. P., & Preacher, K. J. (2008). Monte Carlo method for assessing mediation: An interactive tool for creating confidence intervals for indirect effects [Computer software]. http://quantpsy.org/.
Simpkins, S. D. (2015). When and how does participating in an organized after-school activity matter? Applied Developmental Science, 19(3), 121–126. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888691.2015.1056344.
Simpson, E. H. (1949). Measurement of diversity. Nature, 163, 688. https://doi.org/10.1038/163688a0.
Tenenbaum, H. R., & Ruck, M. D. (2007). Are teachers’ expectations different for racial minority than for European American students? A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(2), 253–273. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.52.
Zhang, Z., Zyphur, M. J., & Preacher, K. J. (2009). Testing multilevel mediation using hierarchical linear models: Problems and solutions. Organizational Research Methods, 12(4), 695–719. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428108327450.
- Friends in Activities, School-related Affect, and Academic Outcomes in Diverse Middle Schools
Casey A. Knifsend
Daisy E. Camacho-Thompson
- Springer US