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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 1/2012

Open Access 01-12-2012 | Poster presentation

Forefoot deformation during the stance phase of normal gait

Auteurs: Saartje Duerinck, Friso Hagman, Ilse Jonkers, Peter Vaes, Peter Van Roy

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research | bijlage 1/2012

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Background

During human walking the ankle-foot complex executes seemingly contradictory functions: (1) stabilization of the human body at initial contact, (2) shock absorption during early stance [13], (3) Storing elastic energy during midstance and (4) providing a strong lever for push of during final stance [1]. This quadrupled function inevitably demands a transfer from a flexible and compliant foot towards a rigid lever [1]. Despite the viable role of the forefoot in this transfer, knowledge concerning the deformation of the forefoot is limited. The aim of this study is to provide a more detailed description of deformation occurring at the level of the forefoot during the stance phase of normal human walking.

Materials and methods

Using a seven-camera motion capture system (250Hz), a pressure platform (500Hz) and a forceplate (1250Hz), we measured forefoot deformation through kinematic and pressure related outcome measures in 60 healthy subjects.

Results

Small but significant changes in intermetatarsal distance are established during stance phase, with the largest change occurring between metatarsal head II/III and V (Table 1). The changes in intermetatarsal distance and metatarsal arch height show slightly different patterns. Both patterns are characterized by a rapid increase in distance during initial stance, reaching a stable platform throughout midstance. At the end of stance phase the intermetatarsal distances rapidly decrease to baseline, whereas the metatarsal arch height increases till a maximum at heel off (Figure 1-5).
Table 1
Parameters characterizing the changes in medio-lateral arch height and mutual distances between metatarsal head I, II/III and V and metatarsal base I and V during stance phase and for the different subphases
 
StPh (mm)
HC (mm)
MF (mm)
MS (mm)
IPO (mm)
FPO (mm)
Max. MedioLat Height
1.13 ± 0.08
0.87 ± 0.07
0.87 ± 0.06
1.01 ± 0.04
1.13 ± 0.08
1.05 ± 0.10
Min. MedioLat Height
85.95 ± 8.95
4.39 ± 2.50
12.34 ± 3.32
47.25 ± 12.02
87.39 ± 7.73
95.88 ± 1.27
Max. distance HMTI-HMTV
1.01 ± 0.01
0.92 ± 0.02
0.96 ± 0.02
1.01 ± 0.01
1.00 ± 0.01
0.94 ± 0.02
Min. distance HMTI-HMTV
0.90 ± 0.02
0.90 ± 0.02
0.92 ± 0.02
0.96 ± 0.02
0.94 ± 0.02
0.91 ± 0.02
Max. distance HMTI-HMTII/III
1.01 ± 0.04
0.94 ± 0.04
0.95 ± 0.04
1.01 ± 0.03
1.01 ± 0.02
0.97 ± 0.04
Min. distance HMTI-HMTII/III
0.91 ± 0.04
0.92 ± 0.04
0.93 ± 0.04
0.95 ± 0.04
0.97 ± 0.04
0.93 ± 0.04
Max. distance HMTII/III- HMTV
1.01 ± 0.04
0.89 ± 0.05
0.94 ± 0.05
1.01 ± 0.04
1.01 ± 0.04
0.93 ± 0.04
Min. distance HMTII/III- HMTV
0.87 ± 0.05
0.87 ± 0.05
0.89 ± 0.05
0.94 ± 0.48
0.93 ± 0.04
0.90 ± 0.04
Max. distance BMTI-BMTV
1.00 ± 0.01
0.99 ± 0.01
0.99 ± 0.01
1.00 ± 0.01
1.00 ± 0.01
1.00 ± 0.01
Min. distance BMTI-BMTV
0.97 ±0.01
0.97 ± 0.01
0.99 ± 0.01
0.99 ± 0.01
0.98 ± 0.01
0.97 ± 0.01
Legend: StPh = stance phase, HC = heel contact, MF = metatarsal forming, MS = midstance, IPO = initial propulsion, FPO = final propulsion, max. = maximum, min. = minimum, HMT = head metatarsal, BMT = base metatarsal
High correlation values (>0.7 or <-0.7) are found between temporal pressure and temporal kinematic parameters.

Conclusion

Through stance the forefoot deforms according to a specific pattern, which is predominantly determined through forefoot-ground interaction. In addition, the changes in forefoot kinematics in combination with temporal contact data argue the existence of a mediolateral metatarsal arch and suggest the existence of an inverse arch during metatarsal forming and final propulsion phase.

Acknowledgement

The preparation of this abstract was funded by the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (i.e., GOA 59)
Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​2.​0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Literatuur
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go back to reference Winter DA: Energy generation and absorption at the ankle and knee during fast, natural, and slow cadences. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1983, 131: 147-154. Winter DA: Energy generation and absorption at the ankle and knee during fast, natural, and slow cadences. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1983, 131: 147-154.
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Metagegevens
Titel
Forefoot deformation during the stance phase of normal gait
Auteurs
Saartje Duerinck
Friso Hagman
Ilse Jonkers
Peter Vaes
Peter Van Roy
Publicatiedatum
01-12-2012
Uitgeverij
BioMed Central
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research / Uitgave bijlage 1/2012
Elektronisch ISSN: 1757-1146
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1186/1757-1146-5-S1-P12