Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Flat-footed individuals are believed to have poorer jump performance compared to normal-arched individuals. Foot orthoses are commonly used to support the deformed foot arch, and improve normal foot function. However, it is unclear if foot orthoses use affects jump performance in athletes. Our study aims to investigate if foot type and/or foot orthosis influence countermovement jump (CMJ) and standing broad jump (SBJ) performance and lower limb biomechanics.
Twenty-six male basketball players were classified into normal-arched (n = 15) or flat-footed (n = 11) groups using the Chippaux-Smirak index, navicular drop test, and the resting calcaneal angle measurement. They performed jumps with and without prefabricated foot orthoses. We measured jump height and distance for CMJ and SBJ, respectively. Hip, knee and ankle joint angles, angular velocities, moments and powers during take-off were also measured.
For CMJ, the flat-footed group exhibited less ankle plantarflexion (F1,24 = 8.407, p = 0.008, ηp2 = 0.259 large effect) and less hip joint power (F1,24 = 7.416, p = 0.012, ηp2 = 0.244 large effect) than the normal-arched group. Foot orthoses reduced ankle eversion in both groups (F1,24 = 6.702, p = 0.016, ηp2 = 0.218 large effect). For SBJ, the flat-footed group produced lower peak hip angular velocity (F1,24 = 7.115, p = 0.013, ηp2 = 0.229 large effect) and generated lower horizontal GRF (F1,24 = 5.594, p = 0.026, ηp2 = 0.189 large effect) than the normal-arched group. Wearing foot orthoses reduced ankle eversion (F1,24 = 5.453, p = 0.028, ηp2 = 0.185 large effect), peak horizontal GRF (F1,24 = 13.672, p = 0.001, ηp2 = 0.363 large effect) and frontal plane ankle moment (F1,24 = 4.932, p = 0.036, ηp2 = 0.170 large effect).
Foot type and the use of foot orthoses influence take-off biomechanics, but not actual CMJ and SBJ performances in basketball players. Compared to the normal-arched individuals, flat-footed athletes generated smaller propulsion GRF and lower hip flexion velocity and power, which suggests possible compensatory movement strategies to maximise jump performance. Future studies may investigate whether these altered biomechanics, taking into consideration their respective magnitude and effect sizes, may have implications on lower limb injuries. The use of foot orthoses resulted in biomechanical changes in both the normal-arched and flat-footed groups but does not enhance jumping performance.
Ben Abdelkrim N, El Fazaa S, El Ati J. Time-motion analysis and physiological data of elite under-19-year-old basketball players during competition. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41:69–75.
Fu FQ, Wang S, Shu Y, Li JS, Popik S, Gu YD. A comparative biomechanical analysis the vertical jump between flatfoot and normal foot. J Biomimetrics, Biometerials Biomed Eng. 2016;48:26–35. CrossRef
Hu Y. The relationship between foot arch height and two-legged standing vertical jump height in male college-age students. Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Illinois, USA: Master of Science (Kinesiology); 2016.
Jarvis HL, Nester CJ, Bowden PD, Jones RK. Challenging the foundations of the clinical model of foot function: further evidence that the root model assessments fail to appropriately classify foot function. J Foot Ankle Res. 2017;10:7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13047-017-0189-2. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Laporta JW, Brown LE, Coburn JW, Galpin AJ, Tufano JJ, Cazas VL, Tan JG. Effects of different footwear on vertical jump and landing parameters. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(3):733–7. CrossRef
Murley GS, Landorf KB, Menz HB. Do foot orthoses change lower limb muscle activity in flat-arched feet towards a pattern observed in normal-arched feet? Clin Biomech. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2010.05.001.
Mills K, Blanch P, Chapman AR, McPoil TG, Vicenzino B. Foot orthoses and gait: a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature pertaining to potential mechanisms. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(14):1035–46. CrossRef
Hirschumuller A, Baur H, Muller S, Helwig P, Dickhuth HH, Mayer F. Clinical effectiveness of customised sport shoe orthoses for overuse injuries in runners: a randomised controlled study. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(12):959–65. CrossRef
Arastoo AA, Aghdam EM, Habibi AH, Zahednejad S. Kinetic factors of vertical jumping for heading a ball in flexible flatfooted amateur soccer players with and without insole adoption. Prosthetics Orthot Int. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309364613492790.
Struzik A, Pietraszewski B, Zawadzki J. Biomechanical analysis of the jump shot in basketball. J Hum Kinet. 2014;42:73–9.
Tong JW, Kong PW. Association between foot type and lower extremity injuries: a systematic review with meta-analysis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013;43(10):700–14. CrossRef
Pita-Fernandez S, Gonzalez-Martin C, Seoane-Pillado T, Lopez-Calvino B, Pertega- Diaz S, Gil-Guillen V. Validity of footprint analysis to determine flatfoot using clinical diagnosis as the gold standard in a random sample aged 40 years and older. J Epidemiol. 2015. https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20140082.
Mueller MJ, Host JV, Norton BJ. Navicular drop as a composite measure of excessive pronation. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1993. https://doi.org/10.7547/87507315-83-4-198.
Lee EC, Kim MO, Kim HS, Hong SE. (2017). Changes in resting calcaneal stance position angle following insole fitting in children with flexible flatfoot. Ann Rehabil Med. 2017;41(2):257–65. CrossRef
Villarroya MA, Esquivel JM, Tomas C, Moreno LA, Buenafe A, Bueno G. Assessment of the medial longitudinal arch in children and adolescents with obesity: footprints and radiographic study. Eur J Paediatr. 2009;168(5):559–67. CrossRef
Murley GS, Menz HB, Landorf KB. A protocol for classifying normal- and flat-arched foot posture for research studies using clinical and radiographic measurements. J foot ankle res. 2009;2(22). https://doi.org/10.1186/1757-1146-2-22.
Lamm BM, Mendicino RW, Catanzariti AR, Hillstrom HJ. Static rearfoot alignment. A comparison of clinical and radiographic measures. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2005;95(1):26–33. CrossRef
Brody D. Techniques in the evaluation and treatment of the injured runner. Orthop Clin North Am. 1982;13:541–58. PubMed
Smith-Orricchio K, Harris B. Interrater reliability of subtalar neutral, calcaneal inversion and eversion. J Orthop Sports Phy Ther. 1990;12:10–5. CrossRef
Majumdar R, Laxton P, Richards B, Liu A, Aran-Ais R, Montiel-Parreno E, Nester CJ. Development and evaluation of prefabricated antipronation foot orthosis. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2013;50(10):1332–42.
Castro-Piñero J, Ortega FB, Artero EG, Girela-Rejón MJ, Mora J, Sjöström M, Ruiz JR. Assessing muscular strength in youth: usefulness of standing long jump as a general index of muscular fitness. J Strength Cond Res. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181ddb03d.
Lam WK, Ding R, Qu Y. Ground reaction forces and knee kinetics during single and repeated badminton lunges. J Sports Sci. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1180420.
Lam WK, Lee WC, Lee WM, Ma CZ, Kong PW. Segmented forefoot plate in basketball footwear – does it influence performance and foot joint kinematics and kinetics? J Appl Biomech. 2018;34(1):31–8. CrossRef
Wakai M, Linthorne NP. Optimum take-off angle in the standing long jump. Hum Mov Sci. 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2004.12.001.
Yu B, Gabriel D, Noble L, An KN. Estimate of the optimum cutoff frequency for the butterworth low-pass digital filter. J Appl Biomech. 1999. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.15.3.318.
Stefanyshyn DJ, Wannop JW. The influence of forefoot bending stiffness of footwear on athletic injury and performance. Footwear Sci. 2016;8(2):51–63. CrossRef
Aragon-Vargas LF, Gross MM. Kinesiological factors in vertical jump performance: differences among individuals. J Appl Biomech. 1997. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.13.1.24.
Liu H, Wu Z, Lam WK. Collar height and heel counter-stiffness for ankle stability and athletic performance in basketball. Res Sports Med. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2017.1282352.
Cohen J. Statistical power for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1998. 1-17.
Malvankar SI, Khan WS. Evolution of the Achilles tendon: the athlete's Achilles heel? Foot. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foot.2011.08.004.
Zhao X, Tsujimoto T, Kim B, Tanaka K. Association of arch height with ankle muscle strength and physical performance in adult men. Biol Sport. 2017. https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2017.64585.
Boozarim S, Jamshidi AA, Sanjari MA, Jafari H. Effect of functional fatigue on vertical ground-reaction force in individuals with flat feet. J Sport Rehabil. 2013;22(3):177–83. CrossRef
McErlain-Naylor S, King M, Pain M. Determinants of countermovement jump performance: a kinetic and kinematic analysis. J Sports Sci. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2014.924055.
Genova J, Gross M. Effect of foot orthotics on calcaneal eversion during standing and treadmill walking for subjects with abnormal pronation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2000. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2000.30.11.664.
Fong D, Lam M, Lao M, Chan C, Yung P, Fung K, Lui P, Chan K. Effect of medial arch-heel support in inserts on reducing ankle eversion: a biomechanics study. J Orthop Surg. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1186/1749-799X-3-7.
Man HS, Lam WK, Lee J, Capio CM, Leung AKL. Is passive metatarsophalangeal joint stiffness related to leg stiffness, vertical stiffness and running economy during submaximal running? Gait Posture. 2016;49:303–8. CrossRef
- Foot orthoses alter lower limb biomechanics but not jump performance in basketball players with and without flat feet
Pui Wah Kong
Lowell Jia-Yee Chong
- BioMed Central