Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research 1/2018

05-10-2017 | Original Article

Flexibility of individual multitasking strategies in task-switching with preview: are preferences for serial versus overlapping task processing dependent on between-task conflict?

Auteurs: Jovita Brüning, Dietrich Manzey

Gepubliceerd in: Psychological Research | Uitgave 1/2018

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

The prevalence and the efficiency of serial and parallel processing under multiple task demands are highly debated. In the present study, we investigated whether individual preferences for serial or overlapping (parallel) processing represent a permanent predisposition or depend on the risk of crosstalk between tasks. Two groups (n = 91) of participants were tested. One group performed a classical task switching paradigm, enforcing a strict serial processing of tasks. The second group of participants performed the same tasks in a task-switching-with-preview paradigm, recently introduced by Reissland and Manzey (2016), which in principle allows for overlapping processing of both tasks in order to compensate for switch costs. In one condition, the tasks included univalent task stimuli, whereas in the other bivalent stimuli were used, increasing risk of crosstalk and task confusion in case of overlapping processing. The general distinction of voluntarily occurring preferences for serial or overlapping processing when performing task switching with preview could be confirmed. Tracking possible processing mode adjustments between low- and high-crosstalk conditions showed that individuals identified as serial processors in the low-crosstalk condition persisted in their processing mode. In contrast, overlapping processors split up in a majority adjusting to a serial processing mode and a minority persisting in overlapping processing, when working with bivalent stimuli. Thus, the voluntarily occurring preferences for serial or overlapping processing seem to depend at least partially on the risk of crosstalk between tasks. Strikingly, in both crosstalk conditions the individual performance efficiency was the higher, the more they processed in parallel.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Voetnoten
1
Note that, in the PRP literature the term “parallel” processing is used to describe concurrent processing exactly at the central stage of response selection. We prefer to use the term “overlapping” processing to refer to any partial or full concurrent processing of two tasks, which can include all processing stages.
 
2
Note that the letters ‘D’, ‘P’, ‘T’, and ‘W’ are pronounced [deː], [peː], [teː], and [veː] in German, while the letters ‘H’, ‘K’, ‘J’, and ‘Q’ are pronounced [haː], [kaː], [jɔt], and [kuː].
 
3
Note that we use the term “dual-tasking” for any situation where an individual has to cope with two tasks, including situations of real concurrent performance like in PRP-tasks, situations of classical task switching where individuals have to switch between two tasks, or situations of task switching which provide options of overlapping processing like in our TSWP paradigm.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Allport, D. A., Styles, E. A., & Hsieh, S. (1994). Shifting intentional set: Exploring the dynamic control of tasks. In C. Umiltà & M. Moscovitch (Eds.), Attention and performance XV (pp. 421–452). Cambridge: MIT. Allport, D. A., Styles, E. A., & Hsieh, S. (1994). Shifting intentional set: Exploring the dynamic control of tasks. In C. Umiltà & M. Moscovitch (Eds.), Attention and performance XV (pp. 421–452). Cambridge: MIT.
go back to reference Conway, A. R., Kane, M. J., Bunting, M. F., Hambrick, D. Z., Wilhelm, O., & Engle, R. W. (2005). Working memory span tasks: a methodological review and user’s guide. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 12(5), 769–786. CrossRefPubMed Conway, A. R., Kane, M. J., Bunting, M. F., Hambrick, D. Z., Wilhelm, O., & Engle, R. W. (2005). Working memory span tasks: a methodological review and user’s guide. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 12(5), 769–786. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Engle, R. W. (2002). Working memory capacity as executive attention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 19–23. CrossRef Engle, R. W. (2002). Working memory capacity as executive attention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 19–23. CrossRef
go back to reference Engle, R. W., & Kane, M. J. (2003). Executive attention, working memory capacity, and a two-factor theory of cognitive control. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 44, 145–199. CrossRef Engle, R. W., & Kane, M. J. (2003). Executive attention, working memory capacity, and a two-factor theory of cognitive control. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 44, 145–199. CrossRef
go back to reference Fischer, R., Gottschalk, C., & Dreisbach, G. (2014). Context-sensitive adjustment of cognitive control in dual-task performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40(2), 399–416. doi: 10.​1037/​a0034310. PubMed Fischer, R., Gottschalk, C., & Dreisbach, G. (2014). Context-sensitive adjustment of cognitive control in dual-task performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40(2), 399–416. doi: 10.​1037/​a0034310. PubMed
go back to reference Fischer, R., Miller, J., & Schubert, T. (2007). Evidence for parallel semantic memory retrieval in dual tasks. Memory and Cognition, 35(7), 1685–1699. CrossRefPubMed Fischer, R., Miller, J., & Schubert, T. (2007). Evidence for parallel semantic memory retrieval in dual tasks. Memory and Cognition, 35(7), 1685–1699. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Forster, S., & Lavie, N. (2007). High perceptual load makes everybody equal: eliminating individual differences in distractibility with load. Psychological Science, 18, 377–382. CrossRefPubMed Forster, S., & Lavie, N. (2007). High perceptual load makes everybody equal: eliminating individual differences in distractibility with load. Psychological Science, 18, 377–382. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Friedman, N. P., & Miyake, A. (2005). Comparison of four scoring methods for the reading span test. Behavior Research Methods, 37, 581–590. CrossRefPubMed Friedman, N. P., & Miyake, A. (2005). Comparison of four scoring methods for the reading span test. Behavior Research Methods, 37, 581–590. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hommel, B. (1998). Automatic stimulus-response translation in dual-task performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 1368–1384. PubMed Hommel, B. (1998). Automatic stimulus-response translation in dual-task performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 1368–1384. PubMed
go back to reference Janczyk, M., Pfister, R., Hommel, B., & Kunde, W. (2014). Who is talking in backward crosstalk? Disentangling response- from goal-conflict in dual-task performance. Cognition, 132, 30–43. CrossRefPubMed Janczyk, M., Pfister, R., Hommel, B., & Kunde, W. (2014). Who is talking in backward crosstalk? Disentangling response- from goal-conflict in dual-task performance. Cognition, 132, 30–43. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Jersild, A. T. (1927). Mental set and shift. Archives of Psychology, 14, 89. Jersild, A. T. (1927). Mental set and shift. Archives of Psychology, 14, 89.
go back to reference Kane, M. J., Conway, A. R., Hambrick, D. Z., & Engle, R. W. (2007). Variation in working memory capacity as variation in executive attention and control. Variation in Working Memory, 1, 21–48. Kane, M. J., Conway, A. R., Hambrick, D. Z., & Engle, R. W. (2007). Variation in working memory capacity as variation in executive attention and control. Variation in Working Memory, 1, 21–48.
go back to reference Kiesel, A., Steinhauser, M., Wendt, M., Falkenstein, M., Jost, K., Philipp, A. M., & Koch, I. (2010). Control and interference in task switching—A review. Psychological Bulletin, 136(5), 849–874. doi: 10.​1037/​a0019842. CrossRefPubMed Kiesel, A., Steinhauser, M., Wendt, M., Falkenstein, M., Jost, K., Philipp, A. M., & Koch, I. (2010). Control and interference in task switching—A review. Psychological Bulletin, 136(5), 849–874. doi: 10.​1037/​a0019842. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lavie, N. (1995). Perceptual load as a necessary condition for selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21(3), 451–468. PubMed Lavie, N. (1995). Perceptual load as a necessary condition for selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21(3), 451–468. PubMed
go back to reference Lavie, N. (2010). Attention, distraction, and cognitive control under load. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(3), 143–148. CrossRef Lavie, N. (2010). Attention, distraction, and cognitive control under load. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(3), 143–148. CrossRef
go back to reference Lavie, N., & Cox, S. (1997). On the efficiency of visual selective attention: efficient visual search leads to inefficient distractor rejection. Psychological Science, 8(5), 395–396. CrossRef Lavie, N., & Cox, S. (1997). On the efficiency of visual selective attention: efficient visual search leads to inefficient distractor rejection. Psychological Science, 8(5), 395–396. CrossRef
go back to reference Lehle, C., & Hübner, R. (2009). Strategic capacity sharing between two tasks: evidence from tasks with the same and with different task sets. Psychological Research, 73, 707–726. CrossRefPubMed Lehle, C., & Hübner, R. (2009). Strategic capacity sharing between two tasks: evidence from tasks with the same and with different task sets. Psychological Research, 73, 707–726. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lehle, C., Steinhauser, M., & Hübner, R. (2009). Serial or parallel processing in dual tasks: what is more effortful? Psychophysiology, 46, 502–509. CrossRefPubMed Lehle, C., Steinhauser, M., & Hübner, R. (2009). Serial or parallel processing in dual tasks: what is more effortful? Psychophysiology, 46, 502–509. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Logan, G. D., & Gordon, R. D. (2001). Executive control of visual attention in dual-task situations. Psychological Review, 108, 393–434. CrossRefPubMed Logan, G. D., & Gordon, R. D. (2001). Executive control of visual attention in dual-task situations. Psychological Review, 108, 393–434. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Los, S. A. (1996). On the origin of mixing costs: exploring information processing in pure and mixed blocks of trials. Acta Psychologica, 94(2), 145–188. CrossRef Los, S. A. (1996). On the origin of mixing costs: exploring information processing in pure and mixed blocks of trials. Acta Psychologica, 94(2), 145–188. CrossRef
go back to reference Luria, R., & Meiran, N. (2005). Increased control demand results in serial processing evidence from dual-task performance. Psychological Science, 16(10), 833–840. CrossRefPubMed Luria, R., & Meiran, N. (2005). Increased control demand results in serial processing evidence from dual-task performance. Psychological Science, 16(10), 833–840. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Meiran, N. (2010). Task switching: mechanisms underlying rigid vs. flexible self control. In R. R. Hassin, K. N. Ochsner, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Self control in society, mind and brain (pp. 202–220). New York: Oxford University. CrossRef Meiran, N. (2010). Task switching: mechanisms underlying rigid vs. flexible self control. In R. R. Hassin, K. N. Ochsner, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Self control in society, mind and brain (pp. 202–220). New York: Oxford University. CrossRef
go back to reference Miller, J. (2006). Backward crosstalk effects in psychological refractory period paradigms: effects of second-task response types on first-task response latencies. Psychological Research, 70, 484–493. CrossRefPubMed Miller, J. (2006). Backward crosstalk effects in psychological refractory period paradigms: effects of second-task response types on first-task response latencies. Psychological Research, 70, 484–493. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mueller, S. T., & Piper, B. J. (2014). The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) and PEBL test battery. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 222, 250–259. CrossRefPubMed Mueller, S. T., & Piper, B. J. (2014). The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) and PEBL test battery. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 222, 250–259. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Navon, D., & Miller, J. (1987). Role of outcome conflict in dual-task interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 13, 435–448. PubMed Navon, D., & Miller, J. (1987). Role of outcome conflict in dual-task interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 13, 435–448. PubMed
go back to reference Pashler, H. (1994). Dual-task interference in simple tasks: data and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 220–244. CrossRefPubMed Pashler, H. (1994). Dual-task interference in simple tasks: data and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 220–244. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Plessow, F., Schade, S., Kirschbaum, C., & Fischer, R. (2012). Better not to deal with two tasks at the same time when stressed? Acute psychosocial stress reduces task shielding in dual-task performance. Cognitive Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 12(3), 557–570. CrossRef Plessow, F., Schade, S., Kirschbaum, C., & Fischer, R. (2012). Better not to deal with two tasks at the same time when stressed? Acute psychosocial stress reduces task shielding in dual-task performance. Cognitive Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 12(3), 557–570. CrossRef
go back to reference Redick, T. S., Broadway, J. M., Meier, M. E., Kuriakose, P. S., Unsworth, N., Kane, M. J., & Engle, R. W. (2012). Measuring working memory capacity with automated complex span tasks. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 28, 164–171. CrossRef Redick, T. S., Broadway, J. M., Meier, M. E., Kuriakose, P. S., Unsworth, N., Kane, M. J., & Engle, R. W. (2012). Measuring working memory capacity with automated complex span tasks. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 28, 164–171. CrossRef
go back to reference Reissland, J., & Manzey, D. (2016). Serial or overlapping processing in multitasking as individual preference: effects of stimulus preview on task switching and concurrent dual-task performance. Acta Psychologica, 168, 27–40. CrossRefPubMed Reissland, J., & Manzey, D. (2016). Serial or overlapping processing in multitasking as individual preference: effects of stimulus preview on task switching and concurrent dual-task performance. Acta Psychologica, 168, 27–40. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Salvucci, D. D. (2013). Multitasking. In J. D. Lee & A. Kirlik (Eds.), The oxford handbook of cognitive engineering (pp. 57–65). New York: Oxford University. Salvucci, D. D. (2013). Multitasking. In J. D. Lee & A. Kirlik (Eds.), The oxford handbook of cognitive engineering (pp. 57–65). New York: Oxford University.
go back to reference Schubert, T., Fischer, R., & Stelzel, C. (2008). Response activation in overlapping tasks and the response-selection bottleneck. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34, 376–397. PubMed Schubert, T., Fischer, R., & Stelzel, C. (2008). Response activation in overlapping tasks and the response-selection bottleneck. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34, 376–397. PubMed
go back to reference Schumacher, E. H., Seymour, T. L., Glass, J. M., Fencsik, D. E., Lauber, E. J., Kieras, D. E., & Meyer, D. E. (2001). Virtually perfect time sharing in dual-task performance: uncorking the central cognitive bottleneck. Psychological Science, 12(2), 101–108. doi: 10.​1111/​1467-9280.​00318. CrossRefPubMed Schumacher, E. H., Seymour, T. L., Glass, J. M., Fencsik, D. E., Lauber, E. J., Kieras, D. E., & Meyer, D. E. (2001). Virtually perfect time sharing in dual-task performance: uncorking the central cognitive bottleneck. Psychological Science, 12(2), 101–108. doi: 10.​1111/​1467-9280.​00318. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Tombu, M., & Jolicoeur, P. (2002). All-or-none bottleneck versus capacity sharing accounts of the psychological refractory period phenomenon. Psychological Research, 66, 274–286. CrossRefPubMed Tombu, M., & Jolicoeur, P. (2002). All-or-none bottleneck versus capacity sharing accounts of the psychological refractory period phenomenon. Psychological Research, 66, 274–286. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Tombu, M., & Jolicoeur, P. (2003). A central capacity sharing model of dualtask performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 29, 3–18. PubMed Tombu, M., & Jolicoeur, P. (2003). A central capacity sharing model of dualtask performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 29, 3–18. PubMed
go back to reference Turner, M. L., & Engle, R. W. (1989). Is working memory capacity task dependent? Journal of Memory and Language, 28(2), 127–154. CrossRef Turner, M. L., & Engle, R. W. (1989). Is working memory capacity task dependent? Journal of Memory and Language, 28(2), 127–154. CrossRef
go back to reference Unsworth, N., Heitz, R. P., Schrock, J. C., & Engle, R. W. (2005). An automated version of the operation span task. Behavior Research Methods, 37, 498–505. CrossRefPubMed Unsworth, N., Heitz, R. P., Schrock, J. C., & Engle, R. W. (2005). An automated version of the operation span task. Behavior Research Methods, 37, 498–505. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Wickens, C. D. (1984). Processing resources in attention. In R. Parasuraman & R. Davies (Eds.), Varieties of attention (pp. 63–101). New York: Academic Press. Wickens, C. D. (1984). Processing resources in attention. In R. Parasuraman & R. Davies (Eds.), Varieties of attention (pp. 63–101). New York: Academic Press.
Metagegevens
Titel
Flexibility of individual multitasking strategies in task-switching with preview: are preferences for serial versus overlapping task processing dependent on between-task conflict?
Auteurs
Jovita Brüning
Dietrich Manzey
Publicatiedatum
05-10-2017
Uitgeverij
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Gepubliceerd in
Psychological Research / Uitgave 1/2018
Print ISSN: 0340-0727
Elektronisch ISSN: 1430-2772
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-017-0924-0