Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N = 517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p < 0.05) and the welfare system (p < 0.01) and had lower earnings (p < 0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000–$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC.
Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. (2002). The persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into young adulthood as a function of reporting source and definition of disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 279–289. doi: 10.1037//0021-843X.111.2.279. CrossRefPubMed
Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. (2006). Young adult outcome of hyperactive children: Adaptive functioning in major life activities. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 192–202. Retrieved from http://www.mdconsult.com/das/article/body/440717035-2/jorg=journal&source=&sp=15958107&sid=0/N/518861/1.html?issn=0890-8567.
Barkley, R. A., Murphy, K. R., & Fischer, M. (2008). ADHD in adults: What the science says. New York: Guilford Press.
Benjamini, Y., & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 57, 289–300. doi: 10.2307/2346101.
Day, J. C., & Newburger, E. C. (2002). The big payoff: Educational attainment and synthetic estimates of work-life earnings. Washington, D.C.
Doshi, J. A., Hodgkins, P., Kahle, J., Sikirica, V., Cangelosi, M. J., Setyawan, J., & Neumann, P. J. (2012). Economic impact of childhood and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the United States. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51, 990–1002.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2012.07.008. CrossRefPubMed
Elliot, D. Z., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Fry, R. (2014). Young adults, student debt and economic well-being. Washington: Pew Research Center.
Greenberg, P. E., Kessler, R. C., Birnbaum, H. G., Leong, S. A., Lowe, S. W., Berglund, P. A., & Corey-Lisle, P. K. (2003). The economic burden of depression in the United States: How did it change between 1990 and 2000? The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64, 1465–1475. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14728109.
Huizinga, D., & Elliot, D. S. (1986). Reassessing the reliability and validity of self-report delinquency measures. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 2, 293–327.
Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., Demler, O., & Zaslavsky, A. M. (2006). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 716–723. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Kessler, R. C., Heeringa, S., Lakoma, M. D., Petukhova, M., Rupp, A. E., Schoenbaum, M., & Zaslavsky, A. M. (2008). Individual and societal effects of mental disorders on earnings in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 703–711. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08010126. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Kuriyan, A. B., Pelham, W. E., Molina, B. S. G., Waschbusch, D. A., Gnagy, E. M., Sibley, M. H., & Kent, K. M. (2013). Young adult educational and vocational outcomes of children diagnosed with ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 27–41. doi: 10.1007/s10802-012-9658-z. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
LaCount, P. A., Hartung, C. M., Shelton, C. R., Clapp, J. D., & Clapp, T. K. W. (2015). Preliminary evaluation of a combined group and individual treatment for college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 22, 152–160. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2014.07.004. CrossRef
Marcotte, D. E., & Wilcox-Gök, V. (2003). Estimating earnings losses due to mental illness: a quantile regression approach. The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, 6, 123–134. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14646005.
Molina, B. S. G., & Pelham, W. E. (2014). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and risk of substance use disorder: developmental considerations, potential pathways, and opportunities for research. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 10, 607–639. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153722. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Molina, B. S. G., Pelham, W. E., Cheong, J., Marshal, M. P., Gnagy, E. M., & Curran, P. J. (2012). Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and growth in adolescent alcohol use: the roles of functional impairments, ADHD symptom persistence, and parental knowledge. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 922–935. doi: 10.1037/a0028260. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Parker, K. (2012). The Boomerang generation: Feeling OK about living with mom and dad. Washington: Pew Research Center.
Pelham, W. E., Evans, S. W., Gnagy, E. M., & Greenslade, K. E. (1992). Teacher ratings of DSM-III-R symptoms for the disruptive behavior disorders: prevalence, factor analyses, and conditional probabilities in a special education sample. School Psychology Review, 21, 285–299.
Pelham, W. E, Gnagy, E. M., Greiner, A. R., Waschbusch, D. A., Fabiano, G. A., & Burrows-MacLean, L. (2010). Summer treatment programs for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In A. E. Kazdin, & J. R. Weisz (Eds.), Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (pp. 277–292). New York: The Guilford Press.
Pew Research Center. (2014). The Rising Cost of Not Going to College. Washington, D.C.
Sibley, M. H., Pelham, W. E., Molina, B. S. G., Gnagy, E. M., Waschbusch, D. A., Garefino, A. C., Karch, K. M. (2012). Diagnosing ADHD in adolescence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80, 139–150. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.orgjournals/ccp/80/1/139.
Sibley, M. H., Pelham, W. E., Molina, B. S. G., Gnagy, E. M., Waxmonsky, J. G., Waschbusch, D. A., & Kuriyan, A. B. (2012b). When diagnosing ADHD in young adults emphasize informant reports, DSM items, and impairment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 80, 1052–1061. doi: 10.1037/a0029098. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Visser, S. N., Danielson, M. L., Bitsko, R. H., Holbrook, J. R., Kogan, M. D., Ghandour, R. M., & Blumberg, S. J. (2014). Trends in the parent-report of health care provider-diagnosed and medicated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: United States, 2003–2011. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 53, 34–46.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.09.001. CrossRefPubMed
Wechsler, D. (1981). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
Weiss, G., & Hechtman, L. (1993). Hyperactive boys grown up: ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
- Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD
Amy R. Altszuler
Timothy F. Page
Elizabeth M. Gnagy
Brooke S. G. Molina
William E. Pelham Jr.
- Springer US