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01-04-2008 | Uitgave 3/2008

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 3/2008

Few Preschool Boys and Girls with ADHD are Well-Adjusted During Adolescence

Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology > Uitgave 3/2008
Steve S. Lee, Benjamin B. Lahey, Elizabeth B. Owens, Stephen P. Hinshaw


To estimate the prevalence of being well-adjusted in adolescence, boys and girls with (n = 96) and without (n = 126) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were assessed seven times in eight years starting when they were 4–6 years of age. Symptoms of ADHD, ODD/CD, and depression/anxiety in addition to social skills and social preference were gathered using multiple methods and informants. Being well-adjusted was defined by surpassing thresholds in at least four of the five domains. At the 7- and 8-year follow-up, when youth were 11–14 years old, probands were significantly less likely to be well-adjusted relative to age- and ethnicity-matched control children. Only a minority of children with ADHD was well-adjusted in adolescence when emotional, behavioral, and social domains were considered simultaneously. Even when their ADHD symptoms improved over time, most probands exhibited significant impairment 7–8 years after their initial assessment.

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