Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Unpredictability within the family environment has been consistently linked to anxiety and depressive symptomology in early adulthood. The current investigation sought to examine how individual and family factors may serve to protect college students from the potentially detrimental effects of growing up with family chaos. A multi-dimensional survey, including measures assessing family unpredictability, coping behavior, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, was administered to 260 (68% female) undergraduate college students. A series of regression models found mediating and moderating effects: the relationship between family unpredictability and psychological distress was explained in part by less family closeness, and this was especially true among students who engaged in more emotion-focused coping. Individuals who used less emotion-focused coping did not appear to suffer from psychological distress associated with family unpredictability. Conversely, task-focused coping did not moderate the association between family unpredictability and psychological distress; yet, individuals who used more task-focused coping, in general, experienced less distress. These findings could be used to inform intervention efforts targeted at improving parenting and caregiving practices as well as the development of campus programs aimed at improving students’ coping strategies.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.
American College Health Association. (2009). American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II: Reference Group Executive Summary Fall 2008. Baltimore, MD: American College Health Association.
American College Health Association. (2017). American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II: Reference Group Executive Summary Fall 2016. Hanover, MD: American College Health Association.
Arch, J. J., & Landy, L. N. (2015). Emotional benefits of mindfulness. In K. W. Brown, J. D. Creswell, R. M. Ryan, (Eds.) Handbook of mindfulness: Theory, research, and practice. (pp. 208–224). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.
Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5), 469–480. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.5.469. CrossRefPubMed
Arnett, J. J. (2016). The Oxford handbook of emerging adulthood. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.
Ayers, T. S., Sandler, I. N., West, S. G., & Roosa, M. W. (1996). A dispositional and situational assessment of children’s coping: Testing alternative models of coping. Journal of Personality, 64(4), 923–958. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1996.tb00949.x. CrossRefPubMed
Ballard, R. (1992). Short forms of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Psychological Reports, 71, 1155–1160. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1992.71.3f.1155. CrossRefPubMed
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191. CrossRefPubMed
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1243. CrossRefPubMed
Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Retrospect and prospect. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 52(4), 664–678. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1982.tb01456.x. CrossRefPubMed
Bretherton, I. (1990). Communication patterns, internal working models, and the intergenerational transmission of attachment relationships. Infant Mental Health Journal, 11(3), 237–252. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0355(199023)11:3<237::AID-IMHJ2280110306>3.0.CO;2-X. CrossRef
Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Gotlib, I. H. (1993). Psychopathology and early experience: A reappraisal of retrospective reports. Psychological Bulletin, 113(1), 82–98. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.113.1.82. CrossRefPubMed
Calvete, E., Camara, M., Estevez, A., & Villardón, L. (2011). The role of coping with social stressors in the development of depressive symptoms: Gender differences. Anxiety, Stress & Coping: An International Journal, 24(4), 387–406. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2010.515982. CrossRef
Chorot, P., Valiente, R. M., Magaz, A. M., Santed, M. A., & Sandin, B. (2017). Perceived parental child rearing and attachment as predictors of anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms in children: The mediational role of attachment. Psychiatry Research, 253, 287–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.04.015. CrossRefPubMed
Compas, B. E., Banez, G. A., Malcarne, V., & Worsham, N. (1991). Perceived control and coping with stress: A developmental perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 47(4), 23–34. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1991.tb01832.x. CrossRef
Compas, B. E., Malcarne, V. L., & Fondacaro, K. M. (1988). Coping with stressful events in older children and young adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(3), 405–411. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.3.405. CrossRefPubMed
Davies, P. T., & Cummings, E. M. (1994). Marital conflict and child adjustment: An emotional security hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 116(3), 387–411. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.116.3.387. CrossRefPubMed
Dumas, J. E., Nissley, J., Nordstrom, A., Smith, E. P., Prinz, R. J., & Levine, D. W. (2005). Home chaos: Sociodemographic, parenting, interactional, and child correlates. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(1), 93–104. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3401_9. CrossRefPubMed
Ehrenreich, J. T., Micco, J. A., Fisher, P. H., & Warner, C. M. (2009). Assessment of relevant parenting factors in families of clinically anxious children: The Family Assessment Clinician-Rated Interview (FACI). Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40(3), 331–342. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-009-0128-y. CrossRefPubMed
Evans, G. W., Gonnella, C., Marcynyszyn, L. A., Gentile, L., & Salpekar, N. (2005). The role of chaos in poverty and children’s socioemotional adjustment. Psychological Science, 16(7), 560–565. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.01575.x. CrossRefPubMed
Fiese, B. H., & Winter, M. A. (2010). The dynamics of family chaos and its relation to children’s socioemotional well-being. In G. W. Evans, T. D. Wachs, (Eds.) Chaos and its influence on children’s development: An ecological perspective.
Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1985). If it changes it must be a process: Study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(1), 150–170. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199. CrossRefPubMed
Han, G., Helm, J., Iucha, C., Zahn-Waxler, C., Hastings, P. D., & Klimes-Dougan, B. (2016). Are executive functioning deficits concurrently and predictively associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescents? Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 45(1), 44–58. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1041592. CrossRefPubMed
Hinchliff, G. M., Kelly, A. B., Chan, G. K., Patton, G. C., & Williams, J. (2016). Risky dieting amongst adolescent girls: Associations with family relationship problems and depressed mood. Eating Behaviors, 22, 222–224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2016.06.001. CrossRefPubMed
Hood, C. O., Ross, L. T., & Wills, N. L. (2016). Self-compassion moderates the family unpredictability-depression relationship. Poster presented at the Society of Southeastern Social Psychologists meeting, Asheville, NC.
Kasch, K. L., Klein, D. N., & Lara, M. E. (2001). A construct validation study of the Response Styles Questionnaire Rumination scale in participants with a recent-onset major depressive episode. Psychological Assessment, 13(3), 375–383. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-35188.8.131.525. CrossRefPubMed
Martel, M. M., Nigg, J. T., Wong, M. M., Fitzgerald, H. E., Jester, J. M., Puttler, L. I., & Zucker, R. A. (2007). Childhood and adolescent resiliency, regulation, and executive functioning in relation to adolescent problems and competence in a high-risk sample. Development and Psychopathology, 19(2), 541–563. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579407070265. CrossRefPubMed
Muller, D., Judd, C. M., & Yzerbyt, V. Y. (2005). When moderation is mediated and mediation is moderated. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(6), 852–863. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2062. CrossRefPubMed
Reetz, D. R., Bershad, C., LeViness, P., & Whitlock, M. (2016). The Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors Annual Survey. Indianapolis, IN: AUCCCD. Retrieved from Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors: https://www.aucccd.org/
Ross, L. T., Hood, C. O., & Short, S. D. (2016). Unpredictability and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 35(5), 371–385. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2016.35.5.371. CrossRef
Ross, L. T., & Hill, E. M. (2000). The Family Unpredictability Scale: Reliability and validity. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62(2), 549–562. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00549.x. CrossRef
Ross, L. T., Short, S. D., & Garofano, M. (2016). Scale of unpredictability beliefs: Reliability and validity. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 150(8), 976–1003. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2016.1225660. CrossRef
Shisslak, C. M., McKeon, R. T., & Cargo, M. (1990). Family dysfunction in normal weight bulimic and bulimic anorexic families. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46, 185–189. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(199003)46:2<185::AID-JCLP2270460210>3.0.CO;2-B. CrossRefPubMed
Skinner, E. A., Edge, K., Altman, J., & Sherwood, H. (2003). Searching for the structure of coping: A review and critique of category systems for classifying ways of coping. Psychological Bulletin, 129(2), 216–269. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.2.216. CrossRefPubMed
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P. R., & Jacobs, G. A. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Staiger, P. K., Melville, F., Hides, L., Kambouropoulos, N., & Lubman, D. I. (2009). Can emotion-focused coping help explain the link between posttraumatic stress disorder severity and triggers for substance use in young adults? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 36(2), 220–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2008.05.008. CrossRefPubMed
Tracy, M., Zimmerman, F. J., Galea, S., McCauley, E., & Vander Stoep, A. (2008). What explains the relation between family poverty and childhood depressive symptoms? Journal of Psychiatric Research, 42(14), 1163–1175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.01.011. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Tucker, C. J., Holt, M., & Wiesen-Martin, D. (2013). Inter-parental conflict and sibling warmth during adolescence: Associations with female depression in emerging adulthood. Psychological Reports, 112(1), 243–251. https://doi.org/10.2466/21.10.PR0.112.1.243-251. CrossRefPubMed
Twenge, J. M., Gentile, B., DeWall, C. N., Ma, D., Lacefield, K., & Schurtz, D. R. (2010). Birth cohort increases in psychopathology among young Americans, 1938–2007: A cross-temporal meta-analysis of the MMPI. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2), 145–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.10.005. CrossRefPubMed
Votta, E., & Manion, I. G. (2003). Factors in the psychological adjustment of homeless adolescent males: The role of coping style. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(7), 778–785. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.CHI.0000046871.56865.D9. CrossRef
Wachs, T. D. (1979). Proximal experience and early cognitive-intellectual development: The physical environment. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 25(1), 3–41.
Wachs, T. D., & Evans, G. W. (2010). Chaos in context. In G. W. Evans & T. D. Wachs (Eds.), Chaos and its influence on children’s development: An ecological perspective (pp. 3–13). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/12057-000.
Waterman, A. S. (1982). Identity development from adolescence to adulthood: An extension of theory and a review of research. Developmental Psychology, 18(3), 341–358. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.111. CrossRef
- Family Unpredictability and Psychological Distress in Early Adulthood: The Role of Family Closeness and Coping Mechanisms
Amy M. Kolak
Candace L. Van Wade
Lisa Thomson Ross
- Springer US
Journal of Child and Family Studies
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843