Electronic supplementary material
I would find smart insole equipment useful in managing my health.
I expect to find the smart insole equipment easy to use.
Using a smart insole is a good idea.
People who are important to me think that I should use smart insole equipment.
I could complete most tasks using smart insole equipment if there was no one around to assist me.
I would hesitate to use smart insole equipment for fear of making mistakes that I cannot correct.
I have the knowledge necessary to use smart insole equipment.
I intend to use smart insole equipment in the next 365 days.
62.5 ± 10.5
Type 1 diabetes
Duration of diabetes, years
18.0 ± 10.4
History of foot ulcers
Completed High School
UTAUT domain, scores
3.27 ± 0.68
3.16 ± 0.74
3.28 ± 0.73
2.87 ± 0.93
3.11 ± 0.89
2.80 ± 1.19
3.22 ± 0.76
2.59 ± 1.17
Bivariate correlation with Behavioural Intention
Multiple regression to predict Behavioural Intention
Standardised regression coefficient (β)
Strongest model (β)
Model adjusted R2
Focus Group Theme
Attitude towards technology “Bring it on!”
“Well as far as I am concerned it’s actually probably three years too late.… within eight weeks of that diagnosis I’d lost my left leg. Now theoretically if that information had been available 6 months earlier, downloaded and gone to my GP, there would have been red alerts everywhere.” (P1)
“…if it was available, I’d use it to prevent, because we know an ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure.” (P2)
“..I think it’s very important that we embrace new technology because that’s the way of the future. …we have to embrace it and fully embrace it. I want to get on with it.” (P5)
Technology self-efficacy “I know how to use all this stuff.”
“I have three computers, three laptops my phone, tablets…I know how to use all this stuff.” (P3)
“…I use an insulin pump…I’ve got laptop and desktop and that sort of stuff.” (P4)
Performance Expectancy: Who is Responsible? Locus of responsibility.
“…My only concern now is if there’s a real problem, my podiatry people turn around and say go to see the podiatrist at the ED.” (P1)
“…before our appointment with the podiatrist they (should) get a summary of what’s happened since the last time they saw us.” (P5)
“…have him or her (GP) say you need to see the podiatrist…No! You need to see the emergency people at the hospital.” (P1)
“…there’s time constraints and things like that with GPs checking up, you might think ‘oh well, they’re seeing what I’m seeing on their… on my device,’ but they’re not looking at it until you raise it.” (P4)
Effort expectancy “is it going to be constantly making noise?” Concerns about technology intrusiveness and burden.
“…is it gonna be constantly making noise, like to your phone…it could get annoying after a while, and …human nature…if they start getting annoyed by something, you stop liking it or caring about it.” (P3)
“..I sort of see it more as a tool to use, not as something that I would possibly use every day, or wonna use every day. …because some things can become a bit of a grind. You know, like you don’t do your blood sugars because it is just a pain in the arse.” (P4)
Additional issues of durability, cost and accessibility.
“My main concern … how long does this (insole) last? How long do you have to replace it? On the cost side of things, that would be a big factor for me ‘cause one, I’m broke and two I can’t justify spending money on stuff that I feel I wouldn’t need personally.” (P3)
“..I’ve got innersoles in my shoes and they’re quite expensive to get made…but they will last to the end of time.” (P4)
“Because I know it puts a lot of people off, the cost of insoles….we pay a fair wack for orthotics as it is?” (P5)
“…maybe it needs to be looked into being subsidised by the government simply because we keep hearing amputations are on the rise…so what is it costing them…as against a subsidy for something like this…for people like us?” P2
“..having these (insoles) available for specific clients …for 6 months, 3 months…so you’re not wearing it as an ongoing thing…(the insole is) paid for and is owned by the hospital and at the end of a certain period you just give it back.” (P2)