Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The expression of anger is considered to be abnormal in depression, yet its role is only poorly understood. In the present study we sought to clarify this role by examining the moderating influence of the family environment on overall levels of anger expression and anger reactivity in depressed and non-depressed adolescents during conflictual interactions with their parents. One hundred and forty one depressed and non-depressed adolescent participants engaged in a problem-solving task with their parents during which their behavioral expression of anger and heart rate were recorded. The results demonstrate that general levels of parental anger in the family environment (as indicated by the overall level of expressed anger by the parents during the interactions) strongly moderates how depressed differ from non-depressed adolescents in terms of their anger, heart rate and reactivity. Overall, the findings suggest that in depressed adolescents anger is much less adaptively attuned to the environment, consistent with models that predict dysfunction in the regulation of anger that prevents depressed individuals responding adaptively to their social environment.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Allen, N. B., & Badcock, P. B. T. (2003). Darwinian models of depression: a review of evolutionary accounts of mood and mood disorders. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 30, 815–626. CrossRef
Allen, N. B., Kuppens, P., & Sheeber, L. B. (2010). Heart rate responses to parental behavior in depressed adolescents. Manuscript submitted for publication.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Asarnow, J. R., Jaycox, L. H., Duan, N., LaBorde, A. P., Rea, M. M., Murray, P., et al. (2005). Effectiveness of a quality improvement intervention for adolescent depression in primary care clinics: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 311–393. CrossRefPubMed
Biglan, A., & Ary, D. V. (1990). Methodological issues in research on smoking prevention. In C. S. Bell & R. Battjes (Eds.), Prevention research: Deterring drug abuse among children and adolescents (NIDA Research Monograph Series, No. 63) (pp. 170–195). Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Bryk, A. S., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1992). Hierarchical linear models for social and behavioural research: Applications and data analysis methods. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., Laresen, J. T., Poehlmann, K. M., & Ito, T. A. (1993). The psychophysiology of emotion. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (2nd ed., pp. 173–191). New York: Guilford.
Cook, E. C., III, & Turpin, G. (1997). Differentiating orienting, startle, and defense response: The role of affect and its implications for psychopathology. In P. J. Lang, R. F. Simons, & M. Balaban (Eds.), Attention and orienting. Sensory and motivational processes (pp. 137–164). New Jersey: Lawrence, Erlbaum Associates Inc.
Davis, B. T., Hops, H., Alpert, A., & Sheeber, L. (1998). Child responses to parental conflict and their effect on adjustment: a study of triadic relations. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 163–177. CrossRef
Forgatch, M. S. (1989). Patterns and outcome in family problem solving: the disrupting effect of negative emotion. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, 115–124. CrossRef
Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gilbert, P. (1989). Human nature and suffering. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gilbert, P. (1992). Depression: The evolution of powerlessness. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gilbert, P. (2000). The relationship of shame, social anxiety and depression: the role of the evaluation of social rank. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 7, 174–189. CrossRef
Gottman, J. M. (1990). Time-series analysis applied to physiological data. In J. T. Cacioppo & L. G. Tassinary (Eds.), Principles of psychophysiology: Physical, social and inferential elements (pp. 754–774). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Granger, C. W. J. (1969). Investigating causal relations by econometric models and cross-spectral methods. Econometrica, 37, 424–438. CrossRef
Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: an integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271–299. CrossRef
Gunlicks-Stoessel, M. L., & Powers, S. I. (2008). Adolescents’ emotional experiences of mother–adolescent conflict predict internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 18, 621–642. CrossRef
Haddy, R. I., & Clover, R. D. (2001). The biological processes in psychological stress. Families Systems and Health, 19, 291–302. CrossRef
Hops, H., Biglan, A., Tolman, A., Arthur, J., & Longoria, N. (1995). Living in Family Environments (LIFE) coding system: Manual for coders (Revised). Eugene, OR: Oregon Research Institute.
Ingram, R. E., Trenary, L., Odom, M., Berry, L., & Nelson, T. (2007). Cognitive, affective and social mechanisms in depression risk: cognition, hostility, and coping style. Cognition & Emotion, 21, 78–94. CrossRef
Joiner, T. E. (2000). Depression’s vicious scree: self-propagating and erosive processes in depression chronicity. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7, 203–218. CrossRef
Katz, L. F., & Hunter, E. C. (2007). Maternal meta-emotion philosophy and adolescent depressive symptomatology. Social Development, 16, 343–360. CrossRef
Levenson, R. W. (1992). Autonomic nervous system differences among emotions. Psychological Science, 3, 23–27. CrossRef
Newman, J. L., Gray, E. A., & Fuqua, D. R. (1999). Sex differences in the relationship of anger and depression: an empirical study. Journal of Counselling and Development, 77, 198–203.
Orvaschel, H., & Puig-Antich, J. (1994). Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children-epidemiologic version-5 (K-SADS-E-5). Ft. Lauderdale, Fl: Nova Southeastern University.
Parke, R. D., & McDowell, D. J. (1998). Towards an expanded model of emotion socialization: new people, new pathways. Psychological Inquiry, 9, 303–307. CrossRef
Price, J. S., & Solomon, L. (1987). Depression as yielding behaviour: an animal model based on Schjelderup–Ebb’s pecking order. Ethology and Sociobiology, 8, 85–98. CrossRef
Radloff, L. S. (1977). A CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. CrossRef
Richards, J. E., & Casey, B. J. (1992). Development of sustained visual attention in the human infant. In B. A. Campbell, H. Hayne, & R. Richardson (Eds.), Attention and information processing in infants and adults (pp. 30–61). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Roberts, R. E., Andrews, J. A., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Hops, H. (1990). Assessment of depression in adolescents using the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale. Psychological Assessment, 2, 122–128. CrossRef
Sigmon, S. T., & Nelson-Gray, R. O. (1992). Sensitivity to aversive events in depression: antecedent, concomitant, or consequent? Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioural Assessment, 14, 225–246. CrossRef
Snijders, T. A. B., & Bosker, R. J. (1999). Multilevel analysis: An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. London: Sage.
- Expression of Anger in Depressed Adolescents: The Role of the Family Environment
Lisa B. Sheeber
Nicholas B. Allen
- Springer US