Skip to main content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 7/2014

01-07-2014 | Empirical Research

Exposure to Violence Predicting Cortisol Response During Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Understanding Moderating Factors

Auteurs: Sophie M. Aiyer, Justin E. Heinze, Alison L. Miller, Sarah A. Stoddard, Marc A. Zimmerman

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 7/2014

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Previous research on the association between violence and biological stress regulation has been largely cross-sectional, and has also focused on childhood. Using longitudinal data from a low-income, high-risk, predominantly African-American sample (n = 266; 57 % female), we tested hypotheses about the influence of cumulative exposure to violence during adolescence and early adulthood on cortisol responses in early adulthood. We found that cumulative exposure to violence predicted an attenuated cortisol response. Further, we tested whether sex, mothers’ support, or fathers’ support moderated the effect of exposure to violence on cortisol responses. We found that the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was modified by sex; specifically, males exposed to violence exhibited a more attenuated response pattern. In addition, the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was moderated by the presence of fathers’ support during adolescence. The findings contribute to a better understanding of how cumulative exposure to violence influences biological outcomes, emphasizing the need to understand sex and parental support as moderators of risk.
Literatuur
go back to reference Bobak, M., & Marmot, M. (1996). East-West mortality divide and its potential explanations: Proposed research agenda. European Journal of General Practice, 2, 8. CrossRef Bobak, M., & Marmot, M. (1996). East-West mortality divide and its potential explanations: Proposed research agenda. European Journal of General Practice, 2, 8. CrossRef
go back to reference Boyce, W. T., Barr, R. G., & Zeltzer, L. K. (1992). Temperament and the psychobiology of childhood stress. Pediatrics, 90, 483–486. PubMed Boyce, W. T., Barr, R. G., & Zeltzer, L. K. (1992). Temperament and the psychobiology of childhood stress. Pediatrics, 90, 483–486. PubMed
go back to reference Brenner, A. B., Zimmerman, M. A., Bauermeister, J. A., & Caldwell, C. H. (2012). The physiological expression of living in disadvantaged neighborhoods for youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1–15. doi: 10.​1007/​s10964-012-9838-8. NIHMSID: NIHMS416568. Brenner, A. B., Zimmerman, M. A., Bauermeister, J. A., & Caldwell, C. H. (2012). The physiological expression of living in disadvantaged neighborhoods for youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1–15. doi: 10.​1007/​s10964-012-9838-8. NIHMSID: NIHMS416568.
go back to reference Cabrera, N., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Bradley, R. H., Hofferth, S., & Lamb, M. E. (2000). Fatherhood in the twenty-first century. Child Development, 71, 27–136. Cabrera, N., Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Bradley, R. H., Hofferth, S., & Lamb, M. E. (2000). Fatherhood in the twenty-first century. Child Development, 71, 27–136.
go back to reference Cohen, S., Hamrick, N. M., Rodriguez, M. S., Feldman, P. J., Rabin, B. S., & Manuck, S. B. (2000). The stability of and intercorrelations among cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and psychological reactivity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 171–179. doi: 10.​1007/​BF02895111. PubMedCrossRef Cohen, S., Hamrick, N. M., Rodriguez, M. S., Feldman, P. J., Rabin, B. S., & Manuck, S. B. (2000). The stability of and intercorrelations among cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and psychological reactivity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 171–179. doi: 10.​1007/​BF02895111. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Collins, W. A., & Steinberg, L. (2006). Adolescent development in interpersonal context. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Socioemotional processes (Vol. 4, pp. 1003–1067). New York: Wiley. Collins, W. A., & Steinberg, L. (2006). Adolescent development in interpersonal context. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Socioemotional processes (Vol. 4, pp. 1003–1067). New York: Wiley.
go back to reference Compas, B. E., Howell, D. C., Phares, V., Williams, R. A., & Ledoux, N. (1989). Parent and child stress and symptoms: An integrative analysis. Developmental Psychology, 25, 550–559. Compas, B. E., Howell, D. C., Phares, V., Williams, R. A., & Ledoux, N. (1989). Parent and child stress and symptoms: An integrative analysis. Developmental Psychology, 25, 550–559.
go back to reference D’angiulli, A., Van Roon, P. M., Weinberg, J., Oberlander, T. F., Grunau, R. E., Hertzman, C., et al. (2012). Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 306. doi: 10.​3389/​fnhum.​2012.​00306. PubMedCentralPubMed D’angiulli, A., Van Roon, P. M., Weinberg, J., Oberlander, T. F., Grunau, R. E., Hertzman, C., et al. (2012). Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 306. doi: 10.​3389/​fnhum.​2012.​00306. PubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Dohrenwend, B. P. (2000). The role of adversity and stress in psychopathology: Some evidence and its implications for theory and research. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41, 1–19. PubMedCrossRef Dohrenwend, B. P. (2000). The role of adversity and stress in psychopathology: Some evidence and its implications for theory and research. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41, 1–19. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dozier, M., Peloso, E., Lewis, E., Laurenceau, J. P., & Levine, S. (2008). Effects of an attachment-based intervention on the cortisol production of infants and toddlers in foster care. Development and Psychopathology. Special Issue: Integrating Biological Measures into the Design and Evaluation of Prevention Interventions, 20, 845–859. doi: 10.​1017/​S095457940800040​0. Dozier, M., Peloso, E., Lewis, E., Laurenceau, J. P., & Levine, S. (2008). Effects of an attachment-based intervention on the cortisol production of infants and toddlers in foster care. Development and Psychopathology. Special Issue: Integrating Biological Measures into the Design and Evaluation of Prevention Interventions, 20, 845–859. doi: 10.​1017/​S095457940800040​0.
go back to reference Fekedulegn, D. B., Andrew, M. E., Burchfiel, C. M., Violanti, J. M., Hartley, T. A., Charles, L. E., et al. (2007). Area under the curve and other summary indicators of repeated waking cortisol measurements. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 651–659. PubMedCrossRef Fekedulegn, D. B., Andrew, M. E., Burchfiel, C. M., Violanti, J. M., Hartley, T. A., Charles, L. E., et al. (2007). Area under the curve and other summary indicators of repeated waking cortisol measurements. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 651–659. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Garbarino, J., Bradshaw, C. P., & Vorrasi, J. A. (2002). Mitigating the effects of gun violence on children and youth. The Future of Children, 12, 73–85. CrossRef Garbarino, J., Bradshaw, C. P., & Vorrasi, J. A. (2002). Mitigating the effects of gun violence on children and youth. The Future of Children, 12, 73–85. CrossRef
go back to reference Graber, J. A., & Sontag, L. M. (2009). Internalizing problems during adolescence. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology: Individual bases of adolescent development (3rd ed., Vol. 1). New Jersey: Wiley. Graber, J. A., & Sontag, L. M. (2009). Internalizing problems during adolescence. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology: Individual bases of adolescent development (3rd ed., Vol. 1). New Jersey: Wiley.
go back to reference Kamptner, N. L. (1988). Identity development in late adolescence: Causal modeling of social and familial influences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17, 493–514. PubMedCrossRef Kamptner, N. L. (1988). Identity development in late adolescence: Causal modeling of social and familial influences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17, 493–514. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kirschbaum, C., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1989). Salivary cortisol in psychobiological research. An overview. Neuropsychobiology, 22, 150–169. PubMedCrossRef Kirschbaum, C., & Hellhammer, D. H. (1989). Salivary cortisol in psychobiological research. An overview. Neuropsychobiology, 22, 150–169. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Klimes-Dougan, B., Hastings, P. D., Granger, D. A., Usher, B. A., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2001). Adrenocortical activity in at-risk and normally developing adolescents: Individual differences in salivary cortisol basal levels, diurnal variation, and responses to social challenges. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 695–719. PubMedCrossRef Klimes-Dougan, B., Hastings, P. D., Granger, D. A., Usher, B. A., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2001). Adrenocortical activity in at-risk and normally developing adolescents: Individual differences in salivary cortisol basal levels, diurnal variation, and responses to social challenges. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 695–719. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kracke, K., & Hahn, H. (2008). Nature and extent of childhood exposure to violence: What we know, why we don’t know more and why it matters. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 8, 29–49. CrossRef Kracke, K., & Hahn, H. (2008). Nature and extent of childhood exposure to violence: What we know, why we don’t know more and why it matters. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 8, 29–49. CrossRef
go back to reference Kruger, D. J., Aiyer, S. M., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2014). Local scarcity of adult men predicts youth assault rates. Journal of Community Psychology, 42, 119–125. doi: 10.​1002/​jcop.​21597. Kruger, D. J., Aiyer, S. M., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2014). Local scarcity of adult men predicts youth assault rates. Journal of Community Psychology, 42, 119–125. doi: 10.​1002/​jcop.​21597.
go back to reference Lamb, M. E., & Tamis-Lemonda, C. S. (2004). The role of the father: An introduction. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (4th ed., pp. 1–31). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Lamb, M. E., & Tamis-Lemonda, C. S. (2004). The role of the father: An introduction. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (4th ed., pp. 1–31). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
go back to reference Latkin, C. A., & Curry, A. D. (2003). Stressful neighborhoods and depression: A prospective study of the impact of neighborhood disorder. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 34–44. Latkin, C. A., & Curry, A. D. (2003). Stressful neighborhoods and depression: A prospective study of the impact of neighborhood disorder. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 34–44.
go back to reference Macpherson, L., Reynolds, E. K., Daughters, S. B., Wang, F., Cassidy, J., Mayes, L. C., et al. (2010). Positive and negative reinforcement underlying risk behavior in early adolescents. Prevention Science, 11, 331–342. doi: 10.​1007/​s11121-010-0172-7. Macpherson, L., Reynolds, E. K., Daughters, S. B., Wang, F., Cassidy, J., Mayes, L. C., et al. (2010). Positive and negative reinforcement underlying risk behavior in early adolescents. Prevention Science, 11, 331–342. doi: 10.​1007/​s11121-010-0172-7.
go back to reference Martinez, P., & Richters, J. E. (1993). The NIMH community violence project II. Children’s distress symptoms associated with exposure to violence. Psychiatry, 56, 22–33. PubMed Martinez, P., & Richters, J. E. (1993). The NIMH community violence project II. Children’s distress symptoms associated with exposure to violence. Psychiatry, 56, 22–33. PubMed
go back to reference McCraty, R., Barrios-Chopin, B., Rozman, D., Atkinson, M., & Watkins, A. D. (1998). The impact of a new emotional self-management program on stress, emotions, heart rate variability, DHEA, and cortisol. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 33, 151–171. PubMedCrossRef McCraty, R., Barrios-Chopin, B., Rozman, D., Atkinson, M., & Watkins, A. D. (1998). The impact of a new emotional self-management program on stress, emotions, heart rate variability, DHEA, and cortisol. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 33, 151–171. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Moss, H. B., Vanyukov, M., Yao, J., & Irillova, G. (1999). Salivary cortisol responses in prepubertal boys: The effects of parental substance abuse and association with drug use behavior during adolescence. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 1293–1299. PubMedCrossRef Moss, H. B., Vanyukov, M., Yao, J., & Irillova, G. (1999). Salivary cortisol responses in prepubertal boys: The effects of parental substance abuse and association with drug use behavior during adolescence. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 1293–1299. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Natsuaki, M. N., Klimes-Dougan, B., Ge, X., Shirtcliff, E. A., Hastings, P. D., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2009). Early pubertal maturation and internalizing problems in adolescence: Sex differences in the role of cortisol reactivity to interpersonal stress. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38, 513–524. doi: 10.​1080/​1537441090297632​0. CrossRef Natsuaki, M. N., Klimes-Dougan, B., Ge, X., Shirtcliff, E. A., Hastings, P. D., & Zahn-Waxler, C. (2009). Early pubertal maturation and internalizing problems in adolescence: Sex differences in the role of cortisol reactivity to interpersonal stress. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38, 513–524. doi: 10.​1080/​1537441090297632​0. CrossRef
go back to reference Peeters, F., Nicholson, N. A., & Berkhof, J. (2003). Cortisol responses to daily events in major depressive disorder. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 836–841. PubMedCrossRef Peeters, F., Nicholson, N. A., & Berkhof, J. (2003). Cortisol responses to daily events in major depressive disorder. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 836–841. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Procidano, M. E., & Heller, K. (1983). Measures of perceived social support from friends and from family: Three validation studies. American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 1–24. Procidano, M. E., & Heller, K. (1983). Measures of perceived social support from friends and from family: Three validation studies. American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 1–24.
go back to reference Pruessner, J. C., Hellhammer, D. H., & Kirschbaum, C. (1999). Burnout, perceived stress, and cortisol responses to awakening. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 197–204. PubMedCrossRef Pruessner, J. C., Hellhammer, D. H., & Kirschbaum, C. (1999). Burnout, perceived stress, and cortisol responses to awakening. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61, 197–204. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sapolsky, R. M. (1993). Endocrinology alfresco: Psychoendocrine studies of wild baboons. Recent Progress in Hormone Research, 48, 437. PubMed Sapolsky, R. M. (1993). Endocrinology alfresco: Psychoendocrine studies of wild baboons. Recent Progress in Hormone Research, 48, 437. PubMed
go back to reference Sapolsky, R. M., Romero, L. M., & Munck, A. U. (2000). How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocrine Reviews, 21, 55–89. doi: 10.​1210/​er.​21.​1.​55. PubMed Sapolsky, R. M., Romero, L. M., & Munck, A. U. (2000). How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions. Endocrine Reviews, 21, 55–89. doi: 10.​1210/​er.​21.​1.​55. PubMed
go back to reference Scarpa, A. (2003). Community exposure to violence in young adults. Trauma Violence Abuse, 4, 210–227. PubMedCrossRef Scarpa, A. (2003). Community exposure to violence in young adults. Trauma Violence Abuse, 4, 210–227. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Schreier, A., & Evans, G. W. (2003). Adrenal cortical response of young children to modern and ancient stressors. Current Anthropology, 44, 306–309. doi: 10.​1086/​367974. CrossRef Schreier, A., & Evans, G. W. (2003). Adrenal cortical response of young children to modern and ancient stressors. Current Anthropology, 44, 306–309. doi: 10.​1086/​367974. CrossRef
go back to reference Shih, J. H., Eberhart, N. K., Hammen, C. L., & Brennan, P. A. (2006). Differential exposure and reactivity to interpersonal stress predict sex differences in adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 103–115. doi: 10.​1207/​s15374424jccp350​1_​9. PubMedCrossRef Shih, J. H., Eberhart, N. K., Hammen, C. L., & Brennan, P. A. (2006). Differential exposure and reactivity to interpersonal stress predict sex differences in adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 103–115. doi: 10.​1207/​s15374424jccp350​1_​9. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Smith, B. W., Ortiz, J. A., Steffen, L. E., Tooley, E. M., Wiggins, K. T., Yeater, E. A., et al. (2011). Mindfulness is associated with fewer PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems in urban firefighters. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 613–617. doi: 10.​1037/​a0025189. PubMedCrossRef Smith, B. W., Ortiz, J. A., Steffen, L. E., Tooley, E. M., Wiggins, K. T., Yeater, E. A., et al. (2011). Mindfulness is associated with fewer PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems in urban firefighters. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 613–617. doi: 10.​1037/​a0025189. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Steinberg, L. (2001). We know these things: Parent adolescent relationships in retrospect and prospect. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 1–19. CrossRef Steinberg, L. (2001). We know these things: Parent adolescent relationships in retrospect and prospect. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 1–19. CrossRef
go back to reference Susman, E. J., & Dorn, L. D. (2009). Puberty: Its role in development. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 116–151). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Susman, E. J., & Dorn, L. D. (2009). Puberty: Its role in development. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 116–151). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
go back to reference U.S. Department of Justice-Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2012). Uniform Crime Report: Crime in the United States, 2011. U.S. Department of Justice-Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2012). Uniform Crime Report: Crime in the United States, 2011.
go back to reference Walker, E., Trotman, H., Brasfield, J., Esterberg, M., & Larsen, M. (2011). Stress hormones, genes, and neuronal signaling in adolescence. The perfect storm for vulnerability to psychosis. The dynamic genome and mental health: The role of genes and environments in youth development. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. Walker, E., Trotman, H., Brasfield, J., Esterberg, M., & Larsen, M. (2011). Stress hormones, genes, and neuronal signaling in adolescence. The perfect storm for vulnerability to psychosis. The dynamic genome and mental health: The role of genes and environments in youth development. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.
go back to reference Walker, E. F., Walder, D. J., & Reynolds, F. (2001). Developmental changes in cortisol secretion in normal and at-risk youth. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 721–732. PubMedCrossRef Walker, E. F., Walder, D. J., & Reynolds, F. (2001). Developmental changes in cortisol secretion in normal and at-risk youth. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 721–732. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Yehuda, R., Resnick, H., Kahana, B., & Giller, E. L. (1993). Long-lasting hormonal alterations to extreme stress in humans: Normative or maladaptive? Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 287–297. PubMedCrossRef Yehuda, R., Resnick, H., Kahana, B., & Giller, E. L. (1993). Long-lasting hormonal alterations to extreme stress in humans: Normative or maladaptive? Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 287–297. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Zahr, L. K. (1996). Effects of war on the behaviour of Lebanese pre-school children: The influence of home environment and family functioning. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66, 401–408. Zahr, L. K. (1996). Effects of war on the behaviour of Lebanese pre-school children: The influence of home environment and family functioning. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66, 401–408.
go back to reference Zimmerman, M. A., & Schmeelk-Cone, K. H. (2003). A longitudinal analysis of adolescent substance use and school motivation among African American youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13, 185–210. CrossRef Zimmerman, M. A., & Schmeelk-Cone, K. H. (2003). A longitudinal analysis of adolescent substance use and school motivation among African American youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 13, 185–210. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Exposure to Violence Predicting Cortisol Response During Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Understanding Moderating Factors
Auteurs
Sophie M. Aiyer
Justin E. Heinze
Alison L. Miller
Sarah A. Stoddard
Marc A. Zimmerman
Publicatiedatum
01-07-2014
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 7/2014
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-014-0097-8

Andere artikelen Uitgave 7/2014

Journal of Youth and Adolescence 7/2014 Naar de uitgave