Skip to main content
Top
Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology 6/2023

27-01-2023

Executive Network Activation Moderates the Association between Neighborhood Threats and Externalizing Behavior in Youth

Auteurs: May I. Conley, Kristina M. Rapuano, Callie Benson-Williams, Monica D. Rosenberg, Richard Watts, Cassandra Bell, BJ Casey, Arielle Baskin-Sommers

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 6/2023

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Neighborhood threats can increase risk for externalizing problems, including aggressive, oppositional, and delinquent behavior. Yet, there is substantial variability in how youth respond to neighborhood threats. Difficulty with cognitive functioning, particularly in the face of emotional information, may increase risk for externalizing in youth who live in neighborhoods with higher threats. However, little research has examined: 1) associations between neighborhood threats and executive networks involved in cognitive functioning or 2) whether executive networks may amplify risk for externalizing in the context of neighborhood threats. Further, most research on neighborhood threats does not account for youth’s experiences in other social contexts. Utilizing the large, sociodemographically diverse cohort of youth (ages 9–10) included in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive DevelopmentSM Study, we identified four latent profiles of youth based on threats in their neighborhoods, families, and schools: low threat in all contexts, elevated family threat, elevated neighborhood threat, and elevated threat in all contexts. The elevated neighborhood threat and elevated all threat profiles showed lower behavioral performance on an emotional n-back task relative to low threat and elevated family threat profiles. Lower behavioral performance in the elevated neighborhood threat profile specifically was paralleled by lower executive network activity during a cognitive challenge. Moreover, among youth with lower executive network activity, higher probability of membership in the elevated neighborhood threat profile was associated with higher externalizing. Together, these results provide evidence that interactions between threats that are concentrated in youth’s neighborhoods and attenuated executive network function may contribute to risk for externalizing problems.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Voetnoten
1
Although adjusting for other demographic covariates (i.e., household income, caregiver education) is common within the broader literature, there is controversy about the causal structure of relationships between these variables and our independent variables. Therefore, given that misspecifying covariates can produce biased and/or inaccurate estimates (Wysocki et al., 2022), we omitted household income and caregiver education from our primary analyses. We provide further details and supplemental results from models including these variables as covariates in the Supplement.
 
2
Some ABCD Study sites have more than one MRI scanner. Following recommendations for imaging analyses with ABCD Study data (Hagler et al., 2019), scanner serial number was included as a random intercept to account for between-scanner variance.
 
3
Supplemental analyses were conducted to evaluate whether the behavioral analyses described above replicated in mixed-effect models utilizing the probability of membership in each profile as independent variables.
 
4
Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the impact of head motion as a covariate.
 
5
Behavioral results were consistent in analyses with the probability of membership in each profile as independent variables. Probability of membership in the Elevated Neighborhood and Elevated All profiles was significantly associated with lower overall, 0-back, and 2-back performance. Conversely, probability of membership in the Low Threat profile was significantly associated with higher overall, 0-back, and 2-back performance. The probability of membership in the Elevated Family profile was not significantly associated with EN-back performance.
 
6
Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that associations between the threat profiles and EN-back performance remained when adjusting for fluid intelligence measured with WISC-V matrix reasoning.
 
7
Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that associations between probability of membership in the Elevated Neighborhood and Low Threat profiles and executive network activation remained when adjusting for fluid intelligence measured with WISC-V matrix reasoning (Supplemental Fig. 2).
 
8
Only the interaction between cognitive processing-related fMRI activity and the Elevated Neighborhood profile was significant in an additional ROI-based moderation analysis using profile membership as an independent variable.
 
9
Analyses demonstrated that cognitive processing-related fMRI activity did not moderate the association between probability of membership in the Elevated Neighborhood profile and internalizing [(SE) = -0.21 (0.20), p = 0.30].
 
10
Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that mean activity across ROIs moderated the relationship between probability of membership in the Elevated Neighborhood profile and externalizing with the inclusion of fluid intelligence (WISC-V matrix reasoning) as a covariate [B(SE) = -0.40 (0.19), β = -0.04, p = 0.03] and with the exclusion of head motion as a covariate [B(SE) = -0.43 (0.19), β = -0.04, p = 0.02].
 
Literatuur
go back to reference Achenbach, T. M. (2009). The Achenbach system of empirically based assessment (ASEBA): Development, findings, theory, and applications. University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families. Achenbach, T. M. (2009). The Achenbach system of empirically based assessment (ASEBA): Development, findings, theory, and applications. University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.
go back to reference Casey, B. J., Cannonier, T., Conley, M. I., Cohen, A. O., Barch, D. M., Heitzeg, M. M., Soules, M. E., Teslovich, T., Dellarco, D. V., Garavan, H., Orr, C. A., Wager, T. D., Banich, M. T., Speer, N. K., Sutherland, M. T., Riedel, M. C., Dick, A. S., Bjork, J. M., Thomas, K. M., & Dale, A. M. (2018). The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study: Imaging acquisition across 21 sites. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 32, 43–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2018.03.001CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Casey, B. J., Cannonier, T., Conley, M. I., Cohen, A. O., Barch, D. M., Heitzeg, M. M., Soules, M. E., Teslovich, T., Dellarco, D. V., Garavan, H., Orr, C. A., Wager, T. D., Banich, M. T., Speer, N. K., Sutherland, M. T., Riedel, M. C., Dick, A. S., Bjork, J. M., Thomas, K. M., & Dale, A. M. (2018). The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study: Imaging acquisition across 21 sites. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 32, 43–54. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​dcn.​2018.​03.​001CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Dick, A. S., Lopez, D. A., Watts, A. L., Heeringa, S., Reuter, C., Bartsch, H., Fan, C. C., Kennedy, D. N., Palmer, C., Marshall, A., Haist, F., Hawes, S., Nichols, T. E., Barch, D. M., Jernigan, T. L., Garavan, H., Grant, S., Pariyadath, V., Hoffman, E., & Thompson, W. K. (2021). Meaningful associations in the adolescent brain cognitive development study. NeuroImage, 239, 118262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118262CrossRefPubMed Dick, A. S., Lopez, D. A., Watts, A. L., Heeringa, S., Reuter, C., Bartsch, H., Fan, C. C., Kennedy, D. N., Palmer, C., Marshall, A., Haist, F., Hawes, S., Nichols, T. E., Barch, D. M., Jernigan, T. L., Garavan, H., Grant, S., Pariyadath, V., Hoffman, E., & Thompson, W. K. (2021). Meaningful associations in the adolescent brain cognitive development study. NeuroImage, 239, 118262. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​neuroimage.​2021.​118262CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gard, A. M., Maxwell, A. M., Shaw, D. S., Mitchell, C., Brooks-Gunn, J., McLanahan, S. S., Forbes, E. E., Monk, C. S., & Hyde, L. W. (2021). Beyond family-level adversities: Exploring the developmental timing of neighborhood disadvantage effects on the brain. Developmental Science, 24(1), e12985. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12985CrossRefPubMed Gard, A. M., Maxwell, A. M., Shaw, D. S., Mitchell, C., Brooks-Gunn, J., McLanahan, S. S., Forbes, E. E., Monk, C. S., & Hyde, L. W. (2021). Beyond family-level adversities: Exploring the developmental timing of neighborhood disadvantage effects on the brain. Developmental Science, 24(1), e12985. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1111/​desc.​12985CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hagler, D. J., Hatton, S., Cornejo, M. D., Makowski, C., Fair, D. A., Dick, A. S., Sutherland, M. T., Casey, B. J., Barch, D. M., Harms, M. P., Watts, R., Bjork, J. M., Garavan, H. P., Hilmer, L., Pung, C. J., Sicat, C. S., Kuperman, J., Bartsch, H., Xue, F., & Dale, A. M. (2019). Image processing and analysis methods for the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. NeuroImage, 202, 116091. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116091CrossRefPubMed Hagler, D. J., Hatton, S., Cornejo, M. D., Makowski, C., Fair, D. A., Dick, A. S., Sutherland, M. T., Casey, B. J., Barch, D. M., Harms, M. P., Watts, R., Bjork, J. M., Garavan, H. P., Hilmer, L., Pung, C. J., Sicat, C. S., Kuperman, J., Bartsch, H., Xue, F., & Dale, A. M. (2019). Image processing and analysis methods for the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study. NeuroImage, 202, 116091. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​neuroimage.​2019.​116091CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Ip, K. I., Sisk, L. M., Horien, C., Conley, M. I., Rapuano, K. M., Rosenberg, M. D., Greene, A. S., Scheinost, D., Constable, R. T., Casey, B., Baskin-Sommers, A., & Gee, D. G. (2022). Associations among household and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantages, resting-state frontoamygdala connectivity, and internalizing symptoms in youth. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 34(10), 1810–1841. https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_01826CrossRefPubMed Ip, K. I., Sisk, L. M., Horien, C., Conley, M. I., Rapuano, K. M., Rosenberg, M. D., Greene, A. S., Scheinost, D., Constable, R. T., Casey, B., Baskin-Sommers, A., & Gee, D. G. (2022). Associations among household and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantages, resting-state frontoamygdala connectivity, and internalizing symptoms in youth. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 34(10), 1810–1841. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1162/​jocn_​a_​01826CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kardan, O., Stier, A. J., Cardenas-Iniguez, C., Pruin, J. C., Schertz, K. E., Deng, Y., Chamberlain, T., Meredith, W. J., Zhang, X., Bowman, J. E., Lakhtakia, T., Tindel, L., Avery, E. W., Lin, Q., Yoo, K., Chun, M. M., Berman, M. G., & Rosenberg, M. D. (2021). Connectome-based predictions reveal developmental change in the functional architecture of sustained attention and working memory. Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.01.454530CrossRef Kardan, O., Stier, A. J., Cardenas-Iniguez, C., Pruin, J. C., Schertz, K. E., Deng, Y., Chamberlain, T., Meredith, W. J., Zhang, X., Bowman, J. E., Lakhtakia, T., Tindel, L., Avery, E. W., Lin, Q., Yoo, K., Chun, M. M., Berman, M. G., & Rosenberg, M. D. (2021). Connectome-based predictions reveal developmental change in the functional architecture of sustained attention and working memory. Neuroscience. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1101/​2021.​08.​01.​454530CrossRef
go back to reference Miller, G. E., Chen, E., Armstrong, C. C., Carroll, A. L., Ozturk, S., Rydland, K. J., Brody, G. H., Parrish, T. B., & Nusslock, R. (2018). Functional connectivity in central executive network protects youth against cardiometabolic risks linked with neighborhood violence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(47), 12063–12068. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1810067115CrossRef Miller, G. E., Chen, E., Armstrong, C. C., Carroll, A. L., Ozturk, S., Rydland, K. J., Brody, G. H., Parrish, T. B., & Nusslock, R. (2018). Functional connectivity in central executive network protects youth against cardiometabolic risks linked with neighborhood violence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(47), 12063–12068. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1073/​pnas.​1810067115CrossRef
go back to reference Murtha, K., Larsen, B., Pines, A., Parkes, L., Moore, T. M., Adebimpe, A., Bertolero, M., Alexander-Bloch, A., Calkins, M. E., Davila, D. G., Lindquist, M. A., Mackey, A. P., Roalf, D. R., Scott, J. C., Wolf, D. H., Gur, R. C., Gur, R. E., Barzilay, R., & Satterthwaite, T. D. (2022). Associations between neighborhood socioeconomic status, parental education, and executive system activation in youth. Cerebral Cortex. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhac120CrossRefPubMedCentral Murtha, K., Larsen, B., Pines, A., Parkes, L., Moore, T. M., Adebimpe, A., Bertolero, M., Alexander-Bloch, A., Calkins, M. E., Davila, D. G., Lindquist, M. A., Mackey, A. P., Roalf, D. R., Scott, J. C., Wolf, D. H., Gur, R. C., Gur, R. E., Barzilay, R., & Satterthwaite, T. D. (2022). Associations between neighborhood socioeconomic status, parental education, and executive system activation in youth. Cerebral Cortex. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1093/​cercor/​bhac120CrossRefPubMedCentral
go back to reference Rosenberg, M. D., Martinez, S. A., Rapuano, K. M., Conley, M. I., Cohen, A. O., Cornejo, M. D., Hagler, D. J., Meredith, W. J., Anderson, K. M., Wager, T. D., Feczko, E., Earl, E., Fair, D. A., Barch, D. M., Watts, R., & Casey, B. J. (2020). Behavioral and neural signatures of working memory in childhood. Journal of Neuroscience, 40(26), 5090–5104. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2841-19.2020CrossRefPubMed Rosenberg, M. D., Martinez, S. A., Rapuano, K. M., Conley, M. I., Cohen, A. O., Cornejo, M. D., Hagler, D. J., Meredith, W. J., Anderson, K. M., Wager, T. D., Feczko, E., Earl, E., Fair, D. A., Barch, D. M., Watts, R., & Casey, B. J. (2020). Behavioral and neural signatures of working memory in childhood. Journal of Neuroscience, 40(26), 5090–5104. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1523/​JNEUROSCI.​2841-19.​2020CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Satterthwaite, T. D., Wolf, D. H., Erus, G., Ruparel, K., Elliott, M. A., Gennatas, E. D., Hopson, R., Jackson, C., Prabhakaran, K., Bilker, W. B., Calkins, M. E., Loughead, J., Smith, A., Roalf, D. R., Hakonarson, H., Verma, R., Davatzikos, C., Gur, R. C., & Gur, R. E. (2013). Functional maturation of the executive system during adolescence. Journal of Neuroscience, 33(41), 16249–16261. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2345-13.2013 Satterthwaite, T. D., Wolf, D. H., Erus, G., Ruparel, K., Elliott, M. A., Gennatas, E. D., Hopson, R., Jackson, C., Prabhakaran, K., Bilker, W. B., Calkins, M. E., Loughead, J., Smith, A., Roalf, D. R., Hakonarson, H., Verma, R., Davatzikos, C., Gur, R. C., & Gur, R. E. (2013). Functional maturation of the executive system during adolescence. Journal of Neuroscience, 33(41), 16249–16261. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1523/​JNEUROSCI.​2345-13.​2013
go back to reference Saxbe, D., Khoddam, H., Piero, L. D., Stoycos, S. A., Gimbel, S. I., Margolin, G., & Kaplan, J. T. (2018). Community violence exposure in early adolescence: Longitudinal associations with hippocampal and amygdala volume and resting state connectivity. Developmental Science, 21(6), e12686. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12686CrossRefPubMed Saxbe, D., Khoddam, H., Piero, L. D., Stoycos, S. A., Gimbel, S. I., Margolin, G., & Kaplan, J. T. (2018). Community violence exposure in early adolescence: Longitudinal associations with hippocampal and amygdala volume and resting state connectivity. Developmental Science, 21(6), e12686. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1111/​desc.​12686CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Shanmugan, S., Wolf, D. H., Calkins, M. E., Moore, T. M., Ruparel, K., Hopson, R. D., Vandekar, S. N., Roalf, D. R., Elliott, M. A., Jackson, C., Gennatas, E. D., Leibenluft, E., Pine, D. S., Shinohara, R. T., Hakonarson, H., Gur, R. C., Gur, R. E., & Satterthwaite, T. D. (2016). Common and dissociable mechanisms of executive system dysfunction across psychiatric disorders in youth. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173(5), 517–526. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.15060725CrossRefPubMed Shanmugan, S., Wolf, D. H., Calkins, M. E., Moore, T. M., Ruparel, K., Hopson, R. D., Vandekar, S. N., Roalf, D. R., Elliott, M. A., Jackson, C., Gennatas, E. D., Leibenluft, E., Pine, D. S., Shinohara, R. T., Hakonarson, H., Gur, R. C., Gur, R. E., & Satterthwaite, T. D. (2016). Common and dissociable mechanisms of executive system dysfunction across psychiatric disorders in youth. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173(5), 517–526. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1176/​appi.​ajp.​2015.​15060725CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Volkow, N. D., Koob, G. F., Croyle, R. T., Bianchi, D. W., Gordon, J. A., Koroshetz, W. J., Pérez-Stable, E. J., Riley, W. T., Bloch, M. H., Conway, K., Deeds, B. G., Dowling, G. J., Grant, S., Howlett, K. D., Matochik, J. A., Morgan, G. D., Murray, M. M., Noronha, A., Spong, C. Y., & Weiss, S. R. B. (2018). The conception of the ABCD study: From substance use to a broad NIH collaboration. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 32, 4–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2017.10.002CrossRefPubMed Volkow, N. D., Koob, G. F., Croyle, R. T., Bianchi, D. W., Gordon, J. A., Koroshetz, W. J., Pérez-Stable, E. J., Riley, W. T., Bloch, M. H., Conway, K., Deeds, B. G., Dowling, G. J., Grant, S., Howlett, K. D., Matochik, J. A., Morgan, G. D., Murray, M. M., Noronha, A., Spong, C. Y., & Weiss, S. R. B. (2018). The conception of the ABCD study: From substance use to a broad NIH collaboration. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 32, 4–7. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​j.​dcn.​2017.​10.​002CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Weissman, D. G., Gelardi, K. L., Conger, R. D., Robins, R. W., Hastings, P. D., & Guyer, A. E. (2018). Adolescent externalizing problems: contributions of community crime exposure and neural function during emotion introspection in mexican-origin youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence : THe Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence, 28(2), 551–563. https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12358CrossRefPubMed Weissman, D. G., Gelardi, K. L., Conger, R. D., Robins, R. W., Hastings, P. D., & Guyer, A. E. (2018). Adolescent externalizing problems: contributions of community crime exposure and neural function during emotion introspection in mexican-origin youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence : THe Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence, 28(2), 551–563. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1111/​jora.​12358CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Yeo, B. T. T., Krienen, F. M., Sepulcre, J., Sabuncu, M. R., Lashkari, D., Hollinshead, M., Roffman, J. L., Smoller, J. W., Zöllei, L., Polimeni, J. R., Fischl, B., Liu, H., & Buckner, R. L. (2011). The organization of the human cerebral cortex estimated by intrinsic functional connectivity. Journal of Neurophysiology, 106(3), 1125–1165. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.00338.2011CrossRefPubMed Yeo, B. T. T., Krienen, F. M., Sepulcre, J., Sabuncu, M. R., Lashkari, D., Hollinshead, M., Roffman, J. L., Smoller, J. W., Zöllei, L., Polimeni, J. R., Fischl, B., Liu, H., & Buckner, R. L. (2011). The organization of the human cerebral cortex estimated by intrinsic functional connectivity. Journal of Neurophysiology, 106(3), 1125–1165. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1152/​jn.​00338.​2011CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Executive Network Activation Moderates the Association between Neighborhood Threats and Externalizing Behavior in Youth
Auteurs
May I. Conley
Kristina M. Rapuano
Callie Benson-Williams
Monica D. Rosenberg
Richard Watts
Cassandra Bell
BJ Casey
Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Publicatiedatum
27-01-2023
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 6/2023
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-022-01003-2

Andere artikelen Uitgave 6/2023

Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology 6/2023 Naar de uitgave