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Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology 9/2020

17-06-2020

Executive Functioning and Activity in Children: a Multimethod Examination of Working Memory, Inhibition, and Hyperactivity

Auteurs: Jessica N. Smith, Joseph S. Raiker, Whitney D. Fosco, Morgan L. Jusko, Mileini Campez, Kelcey Little, Aaron Mattfeld, Kisbel Espinal, Gabriela Sanchez, Brittany Merrill, Erica D. Musser, Elizabeth Gnagy, Andrew Greiner, Erika Coles, William E. Pelham Jr.

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 9/2020

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Abstract

Two primary methods of quantifying executive functioning include self- or other-reports (i.e., questionnaire-based EF) and cognitive test performance (i.e., task-based EF). Despite their lack of concordance with one another and relatively inconsistent associations with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, both approaches have been utilized in attempts to advance our understanding of the role of EF in symptoms of ADHD. The current study is the first to incorporate a direct assessment of behavior (i.e., actigraphy) to further clarify the relation between EF and hyperactivity using a multi-method approach in a sample of children with a range of ADHD symptoms. Fifty-two children between the ages of 8 and 12 completed a testing session during which performance on working memory and inhibition computerized tasks, as well as actigraphy data, were collected. Additionally, parent reports of hyperactivity/impulsivity, working memory, and inhibition were obtained. As expected, questionnaire-based measures of working memory and inhibition were strongly associated with parent-reported hyperactivity/impulsivity, whereas only the latter was associated significantly with mechanically assessed movement. In contrast, task-based working memory performance was more strongly associated with parent-reported hyperactivity/impulsivity relative to task-based inhibition. Further, both task-based working memory and task-based inhibition were similarly associated with mechanically-assessed movement. Finally, compared to questionnaire-based EF, both measures of task-based EF accounted for more variance in objectively-assessed movement. Collectively, these results highlight the measurement issues in the present literature, the importance of careful task and questionnaire design, and the value that alternative approaches (e.g., actigraphy) may provide with respect to advancing our understanding of EF.
Voetnoten
1
Correlations of scores on various BRIEF subscales with task-based working memory range from -0.17 (Conklin et al. 2008) to 0.41 (Toplak et al. 2008). Similarly, correlations of various BRIEF subscales with task-based inhibition range from -0.37 (Hummer et al. 2011) to 0.02 (McAuley et al. 2010). Discrepancies likely reflect methodological differences (e.g., sample characteristics, task-based EF measure used, and BRIEF subscale used) across studies.
 
2
One child recruited from community sources met formal diagnostic criteria for ADHD – Combined Presentation; this child was retained in analyses given the dimensional approach employed and the similarity of this child with children participating from the STP.
 
3
One child recruited from the community was administered the BRIEF.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Executive Functioning and Activity in Children: a Multimethod Examination of Working Memory, Inhibition, and Hyperactivity
Auteurs
Jessica N. Smith
Joseph S. Raiker
Whitney D. Fosco
Morgan L. Jusko
Mileini Campez
Kelcey Little
Aaron Mattfeld
Kisbel Espinal
Gabriela Sanchez
Brittany Merrill
Erica D. Musser
Elizabeth Gnagy
Andrew Greiner
Erika Coles
William E. Pelham Jr.
Publicatiedatum
17-06-2020
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 9/2020
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-020-00665-0

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