Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies 10/2019

21-05-2019 | Original Paper

Executive Function in the Adolescent Mother- Grandmother Dyad and Development of the Young Child

Auteurs: Damali M. Wilson, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Sara B. Johnson, Chakra Budhathoki, Deborah Gross

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Child and Family Studies | Uitgave 10/2019

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Objectives

Children of teen parents are at increased risk for developmental delays which impact a host of social outcomes. Maternal executive function (EF) has previously been identified as an essential contributor to quality parenting directly and child development indirectly. Further, evidence of intergenerational transmission of EF combined with the potential protective effects of the teen’s own mothers, point to the importance of both mothers’ and grandmothers’ EF capacities in parenting in multigenerational families. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship of teen mothers’ (TM) and their mothers’ (GM) executive functioning and the role of these EF capacities on the development of their young children, in particular risk for delay.

Methods

Thirty-four dyads of teen mothers, 15–19 years, with 1–3-year-old children, and their biological, co-residing mothers were recruited. Participants completed a computerized EF battery, the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), and a questionnaire to screen for child developmental delay, Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 3rd edition.

Results

No significant correlation was identified between TM and GM EF task performance. There were modest effect sizes for the association of higher TM and GM global executive functioning and lower risk for developmental delay (both Cohen’s d = 0.40).

Conclusions

Future research on EF and other cognitive abilities in parents and caregivers of young children in multigenerational families may provide new insights into the complexity of early childhood development and risks for delays.
Literatuur
go back to reference Azar, S. T., Reitz, E. B., & Goslin, M. C. (2008). Mothering: thinking is part of the job description: application of cognitive views to understanding maladaptive parenting and doing intervention and prevention work. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29(4), 295–304. CrossRef Azar, S. T., Reitz, E. B., & Goslin, M. C. (2008). Mothering: thinking is part of the job description: application of cognitive views to understanding maladaptive parenting and doing intervention and prevention work. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29(4), 295–304. CrossRef
go back to reference Azar, S. T., & Weinzierl, K. M. (2005). Child maltreatment and childhood injury research: a cognitive behavioral approach. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30(7), 598–614. CrossRefPubMed Azar, S. T., & Weinzierl, K. M. (2005). Child maltreatment and childhood injury research: a cognitive behavioral approach. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30(7), 598–614. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baker, C. E. (2017). Father-son relationships in ethnically diverse families: links to boys’ cognitive and social emotional development in preschool. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(8), 2335–2345. CrossRef Baker, C. E. (2017). Father-son relationships in ethnically diverse families: links to boys’ cognitive and social emotional development in preschool. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26(8), 2335–2345. CrossRef
go back to reference Barnett, M. A., Gustafsson, H., Deng, M., Mills‐Koonce, W. R., & Cox, M. (2012). Bidirectional associations among sensitive parenting, language development, and social competence. Infant and Child Development, 21(4), 374–393. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Barnett, M. A., Gustafsson, H., Deng, M., Mills‐Koonce, W. R., & Cox, M. (2012). Bidirectional associations among sensitive parenting, language development, and social competence. Infant and Child Development, 21(4), 374–393. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Barrett, J., & Fleming, A. S. (2011). Annual research review: all mothers are not created equal—neural and psychobiological perspectives on mothering and the importance of individual differences. Journal Of Child Psychology And Psychiatry, 52(4), 368–397. CrossRefPubMed Barrett, J., & Fleming, A. S. (2011). Annual research review: all mothers are not created equal—neural and psychobiological perspectives on mothering and the importance of individual differences. Journal Of Child Psychology And Psychiatry, 52(4), 368–397. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baudry, C., Tarabulsy, G. M., Atkinson, L., Pearson, J., & St-Pierre, A. (2017). Intervention with adolescent mother–child dyads and cognitive development in early childhood: a meta-analysis. Preventive Science, 18(1), 116–130. CrossRef Baudry, C., Tarabulsy, G. M., Atkinson, L., Pearson, J., & St-Pierre, A. (2017). Intervention with adolescent mother–child dyads and cognitive development in early childhood: a meta-analysis. Preventive Science, 18(1), 116–130. CrossRef
go back to reference Beers, L. A. S., & Hollo, R. E. (2009). Approaching the adolescent-headed family: a review of teen parenting. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 39(9), 216–233. CrossRef Beers, L. A. S., & Hollo, R. E. (2009). Approaching the adolescent-headed family: a review of teen parenting. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 39(9), 216–233. CrossRef
go back to reference Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2016). Poverty, stress, and brain development: new directions for prevention and intervention. Academic Pediatrics, 16(3), S30–S36. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2016). Poverty, stress, and brain development: new directions for prevention and intervention. Academic Pediatrics, 16(3), S30–S36. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Bridgett, D. J., Gartstein, M. A., Putnam, S. P., Lance, K. O., Iddins, E., Waits, R., VanVleet, J., & Lee, L. (2011). Emerging effortful control in toddlerhood: the role of infant orienting/regulation, maternal effortful control, and maternal time spent in caregiving activities. Infant Behavior and Development, 34, 189–199. CrossRefPubMed Bridgett, D. J., Gartstein, M. A., Putnam, S. P., Lance, K. O., Iddins, E., Waits, R., VanVleet, J., & Lee, L. (2011). Emerging effortful control in toddlerhood: the role of infant orienting/regulation, maternal effortful control, and maternal time spent in caregiving activities. Infant Behavior and Development, 34, 189–199. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brieant, A., Holmes, C., Deater-Deckard, K., King-Casas, B., & Kim-Spoon, J. (2017). Household chaos as a context for intergenerational transmission of executive functioning. Journal of Adolescence, 58, 40–48. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Brieant, A., Holmes, C., Deater-Deckard, K., King-Casas, B., & Kim-Spoon, J. (2017). Household chaos as a context for intergenerational transmission of executive functioning. Journal of Adolescence, 58, 40–48. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Brooks-Gunn, J., & Markman, L. (2005). The contribution of parenting to ethnic and racial gaps in school readiness. The Future of Children, 15(1), 139–168. CrossRefPubMed Brooks-Gunn, J., & Markman, L. (2005). The contribution of parenting to ethnic and racial gaps in school readiness. The Future of Children, 15(1), 139–168. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cambridge Cognition Limited. (2014). Cantab Research Suite 6 Test Administration Guide. Cambridge Cognition Limited. (2014). Cantab Research Suite 6 Test Administration Guide.
go back to reference Chico, E., Gonzalez, A., Ali, N., Steiner, M., & Fleming, A. S. (2014). Executive function and mothering: challenges faced by teenage mothers. Developmental Psychobiology, 56(5), 1027–1035. CrossRefPubMed Chico, E., Gonzalez, A., Ali, N., Steiner, M., & Fleming, A. S. (2014). Executive function and mothering: challenges faced by teenage mothers. Developmental Psychobiology, 56(5), 1027–1035. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Crandall, A., Deater-Deckard, K., & Riley, A. W. (2015). Maternal emotion and cognitive control capacities and parenting: a conceptual framework. Developmental Review, 36, 105–126. CrossRefPubMed Crandall, A., Deater-Deckard, K., & Riley, A. W. (2015). Maternal emotion and cognitive control capacities and parenting: a conceptual framework. Developmental Review, 36, 105–126. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Cuevas, K., Deater-Deckard, K., Kim-Spoon, J., Watson, A. J., Morasch, K. C., & Bell, M. A. (2014). What’s mom got to do with it? Contributions of maternal executive function and caregiving to the development of executive function across early childhood. Developmental Science, 17(2), 224–238. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Cuevas, K., Deater-Deckard, K., Kim-Spoon, J., Watson, A. J., Morasch, K. C., & Bell, M. A. (2014). What’s mom got to do with it? Contributions of maternal executive function and caregiving to the development of executive function across early childhood. Developmental Science, 17(2), 224–238. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Deater-Deckard, K., Sewell, M. D., Petrill, S. A., & Thompson, L. A. (2010). Maternal working memory and reactive negativity in parenting. Psychological Science (Sage Publications Inc.), 21(1), 75–79. Deater-Deckard, K., Sewell, M. D., Petrill, S. A., & Thompson, L. A. (2010). Maternal working memory and reactive negativity in parenting. Psychological Science (Sage Publications Inc.), 21(1), 75–79.
go back to reference Ermisch, J. (2008). Origins of social immobility and inequality: parenting and early child development. National Institute Economic Review, 205(1), 62–71. CrossRef Ermisch, J. (2008). Origins of social immobility and inequality: parenting and early child development. National Institute Economic Review, 205(1), 62–71. CrossRef
go back to reference Erzinger, A. B., & Steiger, A. E. (2014). Intergenerational transmission of maternal and paternal parenting beliefs: the moderating role of interaction quality. The European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11(2), 177–195. CrossRef Erzinger, A. B., & Steiger, A. E. (2014). Intergenerational transmission of maternal and paternal parenting beliefs: the moderating role of interaction quality. The European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11(2), 177–195. CrossRef
go back to reference Feldman, M. A., Hancock, C. L., Rielly, N., Minnes, P., & Cairns, C. (2000). Behavior problems in young children with or at risk for developmental delay. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 9(2), 247–261. CrossRef Feldman, M. A., Hancock, C. L., Rielly, N., Minnes, P., & Cairns, C. (2000). Behavior problems in young children with or at risk for developmental delay. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 9(2), 247–261. CrossRef
go back to reference Fontaine, D., & Nolin, P. (2012). Study of “Hot” executive functions in a sample of parents who have been accused of physical abuse or neglect. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 21(1), 1–18. CrossRef Fontaine, D., & Nolin, P. (2012). Study of “Hot” executive functions in a sample of parents who have been accused of physical abuse or neglect. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 21(1), 1–18. CrossRef
go back to reference Friedman, N. P., & Miyake, A. (2017). Unity and diversity of executive functions: Individual differences as a window on cognitive structure. Cortex, 86, 186–204. CrossRefPubMed Friedman, N. P., & Miyake, A. (2017). Unity and diversity of executive functions: Individual differences as a window on cognitive structure. Cortex, 86, 186–204. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Friedman, N. P., Miyake, A., Young, S. E., DeFries, J. C., Corley, R. P., & Hewitt, J. K. (2008). Individual differences in executive functions are almost entirely genetic in origin. Journal Of Experimental Psychology: General, 137(2), 201–225. CrossRef Friedman, N. P., Miyake, A., Young, S. E., DeFries, J. C., Corley, R. P., & Hewitt, J. K. (2008). Individual differences in executive functions are almost entirely genetic in origin. Journal Of Experimental Psychology: General, 137(2), 201–225. CrossRef
go back to reference Gajewski, P., & Falkenstein, M. (2016). Physical activity and neurocognitive functioning in aging—a condensed updated review. European Reviews Of Aging & Physical Activity, 13(1), 1–7. CrossRef Gajewski, P., & Falkenstein, M. (2016). Physical activity and neurocognitive functioning in aging—a condensed updated review. European Reviews Of Aging & Physical Activity, 13(1), 1–7. CrossRef
go back to reference Garlinghouse, T. G. (2013). Money or Mothering: Which Is More Important. Kennedy School Review, 1323–1327. Garlinghouse, T. G. (2013). Money or Mothering: Which Is More Important. Kennedy School Review, 1323–1327.
go back to reference Golden, A. L. (2016). Family structure and child well-being: dads make a difference. Issues In Law & Medicine, 31(2), 211–215. Golden, A. L. (2016). Family structure and child well-being: dads make a difference. Issues In Law & Medicine, 31(2), 211–215.
go back to reference Gonzalez, A., Jenkins, J. M., Steiner, M., & Fleming, A. S. (2012). Maternal early life experiences and parenting: the mediating role of cortisol and executive function. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(7), 673–682. CrossRef Gonzalez, A., Jenkins, J. M., Steiner, M., & Fleming, A. S. (2012). Maternal early life experiences and parenting: the mediating role of cortisol and executive function. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(7), 673–682. CrossRef
go back to reference Guajardo, N. R., Snyder, G., & Petersen, R. (2009). Relationships among parenting practices, parental stress, child behaviour, and children’s social‐cognitive development. Infant and Child Development, 18(1), 37–60. CrossRef Guajardo, N. R., Snyder, G., & Petersen, R. (2009). Relationships among parenting practices, parental stress, child behaviour, and children’s social‐cognitive development. Infant and Child Development, 18(1), 37–60. CrossRef
go back to reference Guevara, J. P., Gerdes, M., Localio, R., Huang, Y. V., Pinto-Martin, J., Minkovitz, C. S., Hsu, D., Kyriakou, L., Baglivo, S., Kavanagh, J., & Pati, S. (2013). Effectiveness of developmental screening in an urban setting. Pediatrics, 131(1), 30–37. CrossRefPubMed Guevara, J. P., Gerdes, M., Localio, R., Huang, Y. V., Pinto-Martin, J., Minkovitz, C. S., Hsu, D., Kyriakou, L., Baglivo, S., Kavanagh, J., & Pati, S. (2013). Effectiveness of developmental screening in an urban setting. Pediatrics, 131(1), 30–37. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Hughes, C. (2011). Changes and challenges in 20 years of research into the development of executive functions. Infant & Child Development, 20(3), 251–271. CrossRef Hughes, C. (2011). Changes and challenges in 20 years of research into the development of executive functions. Infant & Child Development, 20(3), 251–271. CrossRef
go back to reference Jester, J., Nigg, J., Puttler, L., Long, J., Fitzgerald, H., & Zucker, R. (2009). Intergenerational transmission of neuropsychological executive functioning. Brain and Cognition, 70, 145–153. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Jester, J., Nigg, J., Puttler, L., Long, J., Fitzgerald, H., & Zucker, R. (2009). Intergenerational transmission of neuropsychological executive functioning. Brain and Cognition, 70, 145–153. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Kim, M. H., Shimomaeda, L., Giuliano, R., & Skowron, E. (2017). Intergenerational associations in executive function between mothers and children in the context of risk. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 164, 1–15. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Kim, M. H., Shimomaeda, L., Giuliano, R., & Skowron, E. (2017). Intergenerational associations in executive function between mothers and children in the context of risk. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 164, 1–15. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Lomanowska, A. M., Boivin, M., Hertzman, C., & Fleming, A. S. (2017). Parenting begets parenting: a neurobiological perspective on early adversity and the transmission of parenting styles across generations. Neuroscience, 342(7), 120–139. CrossRefPubMed Lomanowska, A. M., Boivin, M., Hertzman, C., & Fleming, A. S. (2017). Parenting begets parenting: a neurobiological perspective on early adversity and the transmission of parenting styles across generations. Neuroscience, 342(7), 120–139. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Luciana, M. (2003). Practitioner review: computerized assessment of neuropsychological function in children: clinical and research applications of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB). Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 44(5), 649–663. CrossRef Luciana, M. (2003). Practitioner review: computerized assessment of neuropsychological function in children: clinical and research applications of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB). Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 44(5), 649–663. CrossRef
go back to reference Lugo‐Gil, J., & Tamis‐LeMonda, C. S. (2008). Family resources and parenting quality: links to children’s cognitive development across the first 3 years. Child Development, 79(4), 1065–1085. CrossRefPubMed Lugo‐Gil, J., & Tamis‐LeMonda, C. S. (2008). Family resources and parenting quality: links to children’s cognitive development across the first 3 years. Child Development, 79(4), 1065–1085. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Luna, B., Padmanabhan, A., & O’Hearn, K. (2010). What has fMRI told us about the development of cognitive control through adolescence? Brain & Cognition, 72(1), 101–113. CrossRef Luna, B., Padmanabhan, A., & O’Hearn, K. (2010). What has fMRI told us about the development of cognitive control through adolescence? Brain & Cognition, 72(1), 101–113. CrossRef
go back to reference Mollborn, A., & Dennis, J. A. (2012). Explaining the early development and health of teen mothers’ children. Sociological Forum, 27(4), 1010–1036. CrossRefPubMed Mollborn, A., & Dennis, J. A. (2012). Explaining the early development and health of teen mothers’ children. Sociological Forum, 27(4), 1010–1036. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Nayak, M. B., & Milner, J. S. (1998). Neuropsychological functioning: comparison of mothers at high- and low-risk for child physical abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(7), 687–703. CrossRef Nayak, M. B., & Milner, J. S. (1998). Neuropsychological functioning: comparison of mothers at high- and low-risk for child physical abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(7), 687–703. CrossRef
go back to reference Paczkowski, E., & Baker, B. (2007). Parenting children with and without developmental delay: the role of self-mastery. Journal Of Intellectual Disability Research, 51(6), 435–446. CrossRefPubMed Paczkowski, E., & Baker, B. (2007). Parenting children with and without developmental delay: the role of self-mastery. Journal Of Intellectual Disability Research, 51(6), 435–446. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Penman-Aguilar, A., Carter, M., Snead, M. C., & Kourtis, A. P. (2013). Socioeconomic disadvantage as a social determinant of teen childbearing in the US. Public Health Reports, 128(2_suppl1), 5–22. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Penman-Aguilar, A., Carter, M., Snead, M. C., & Kourtis, A. P. (2013). Socioeconomic disadvantage as a social determinant of teen childbearing in the US. Public Health Reports, 128(2_suppl1), 5–22. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Rafferty, Y., Griffin, K. W., & Lodise, M. (2011). Adolescent motherhood and developmental outcomes of children in early head start: the influence of maternal parenting behaviors, well‐being, and risk factors within the family setting. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 81(2), 228–245. CrossRefPubMed Rafferty, Y., Griffin, K. W., & Lodise, M. (2011). Adolescent motherhood and developmental outcomes of children in early head start: the influence of maternal parenting behaviors, well‐being, and risk factors within the family setting. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 81(2), 228–245. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Rosenberg, S. A., Zhang, D., & Robinson, C. C. (2008). Prevalence of developmental delays and participation in early intervention services for young children. Pediatrics, 121(6), e1503–e1509. CrossRefPubMed Rosenberg, S. A., Zhang, D., & Robinson, C. C. (2008). Prevalence of developmental delays and participation in early intervention services for young children. Pediatrics, 121(6), e1503–e1509. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Ruedinger, E., & Cox, J. (2012). Adolescent childbearing: consequences and interventions. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 24(4), 446–452. PubMed Ruedinger, E., & Cox, J. (2012). Adolescent childbearing: consequences and interventions. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 24(4), 446–452. PubMed
go back to reference San Antonio, M. C., Fenick, A. M., Shabanova, V., Leventhal, J. M., & Weitzman, C. C. (2014). Developmental screening using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: standardized versus real-world conditions. Infants & Young Children, 27(2), 111–119. CrossRef San Antonio, M. C., Fenick, A. M., Shabanova, V., Leventhal, J. M., & Weitzman, C. C. (2014). Developmental screening using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: standardized versus real-world conditions. Infants & Young Children, 27(2), 111–119. CrossRef
go back to reference Sethna, V., Perry, E., Domoney, J., Iles, J., Psychogiou, L., Rowbotham, N. E., & Ramchandani, P. G. (2017). Father-child interactions at 3 months and 24 months: contributions to children’s cognitive development at 24 months. Infant Mental Health Journal, 38(3), 378–390. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral Sethna, V., Perry, E., Domoney, J., Iles, J., Psychogiou, L., Rowbotham, N. E., & Ramchandani, P. G. (2017). Father-child interactions at 3 months and 24 months: contributions to children’s cognitive development at 24 months. Infant Mental Health Journal, 38(3), 378–390. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Shevell, M., Majnemer, A., Platt, R. W., Webster, R., & Birnbaum, R. (2005). Developmental and functional outcomes at school age of preschool children with global developmental delay. Journal Of Child Neurology, 20(8), 648–654. CrossRefPubMed Shevell, M., Majnemer, A., Platt, R. W., Webster, R., & Birnbaum, R. (2005). Developmental and functional outcomes at school age of preschool children with global developmental delay. Journal Of Child Neurology, 20(8), 648–654. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Shonkoff, J. P. & Phillips, D. A. (Eds). (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: the science of early childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Shonkoff, J. P. & Phillips, D. A. (Eds). (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: the science of early childhood development. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
go back to reference Smith, P. J., Need, A. C., Cirulli, E. T., Chiba-Falek, O., & Attix, D. K. (2013). A comparison of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) with “traditional” neuropsychological testing instruments. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 35(3), 319–328. CrossRef Smith, P. J., Need, A. C., Cirulli, E. T., Chiba-Falek, O., & Attix, D. K. (2013). A comparison of the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) with “traditional” neuropsychological testing instruments. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 35(3), 319–328. CrossRef
go back to reference Squires, J., Bricker, D., Twombly, E., & Potter, L. (2009). ASQ-3 user’s guide. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company. Squires, J., Bricker, D., Twombly, E., & Potter, L. (2009). ASQ-3 user’s guide. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.
go back to reference StataCorp (2015). Stata Statistical Software: Release 14. College Station: StataCorp LP. StataCorp (2015). Stata Statistical Software: Release 14. College Station: StataCorp LP.
go back to reference Vinopal, K., & Gershenson, S. (2017). Re-conceptualizing gaps by socioeconomic status in parental time with children. Social Indicators Research, 133(2), 623–643. CrossRef Vinopal, K., & Gershenson, S. (2017). Re-conceptualizing gaps by socioeconomic status in parental time with children. Social Indicators Research, 133(2), 623–643. CrossRef
go back to reference Wilson, D., & Gross, D. (2018). Parents’ executive functioning and involvement in their child’s education: an integrated literature review. Journal of School Health, 88(4), 322–329. CrossRefPubMed Wilson, D., & Gross, D. (2018). Parents’ executive functioning and involvement in their child’s education: an integrated literature review. Journal of School Health, 88(4), 322–329. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference World Health Organization. (2014). World Health Statistics. Geneva: World Health Organization Press. World Health Organization. (2014). World Health Statistics. Geneva: World Health Organization Press.
go back to reference Yousafzai, A., Obradovic, J., Rasheed, M., Rizvi, A., Portilla, X., Tirado-Strayer, N., Siyal, S., & Memon, U. (2016). Effects of responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions on children’s development and growth at age 4 years in a disadvantaged population in Pakistan: a longitudinal follow-up of a cluster-randomised factorial effectiveness trial. The Lancet Global Health, 4(8), e548–e558. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​S2214-109X(16)30100-0. CrossRefPubMed Yousafzai, A., Obradovic, J., Rasheed, M., Rizvi, A., Portilla, X., Tirado-Strayer, N., Siyal, S., & Memon, U. (2016). Effects of responsive stimulation and nutrition interventions on children’s development and growth at age 4 years in a disadvantaged population in Pakistan: a longitudinal follow-up of a cluster-randomised factorial effectiveness trial. The Lancet Global Health, 4(8), e548–e558. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1016/​S2214-109X(16)30100-0. CrossRefPubMed
Metagegevens
Titel
Executive Function in the Adolescent Mother- Grandmother Dyad and Development of the Young Child
Auteurs
Damali M. Wilson
Kirby Deater-Deckard
Sara B. Johnson
Chakra Budhathoki
Deborah Gross
Publicatiedatum
21-05-2019
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Child and Family Studies / Uitgave 10/2019
Print ISSN: 1062-1024
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-2843
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-019-01464-y

Andere artikelen Uitgave 10/2019

Journal of Child and Family Studies 10/2019 Naar de uitgave