Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) can reduce teachers’ stress. The purpose of this mixed-method study, conducted within the context of a randomized-control trial of an MBI for teachers, was to examine four potential ways by which the MBI reduced teacher stress, including by (1) increasing their efficacy for regulating emotion on the job; (2) improving their ways of coping with stress at work; (3) increasing their efficacy for forgiving colleagues and students at work following conflict, as well as the tendency to do so; and (4) increasing teachers’ tendency to feel compassion for people generally, and for challenging students in particular. Public school teachers (n = 59) were randomized to an MBI or a waitlist control condition. They completed surveys at pre/post/follow-up and interviews at post-program designed to assess their coping with work stressors and their appraisals of their most challenging students. Survey data showed that efficacy beliefs and the tendency to forgive changed from pre/post for teachers in the MBI, and partially mediated reductions in stress from baseline to 4-month follow-up. Interview results showed a trend for teachers in the MBI to report more adaptive strategies for coping with job stress, and a tendency to evaluate challenging students in a more positive affective light. Implications for MBIs in teacher professional development are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: Freeman and Company.
Baskin, T. W., & Enright, R. D. (2004). Intervention studies on forgiveness: a meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82, 79–90. CrossRef
Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N., Carmody, J., Segal, Z., Abbey, S., Speca, M., Velting, D., & Devins, G. (2004). Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230–241.
Brophy, J., & Rohrkemper, M. (1988). The classroom strategy study: summary report of general findings (research series No. 187). East Lansing, MI: Institute for Research on Teaching.
Brown, R. P., & Phillips, A. (2005). Letting bygones be bygones: further evidence for the validity of the tendency to forgive scale (TTF). Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 627–638. CrossRef
Cullen, M. (2011). Mindfulness-based interventions: an emerging phenomena. Mindfulness, 2, 186–193. CrossRef
Cullen, M. (2015). http://www.margaretcullen.com.
Cullen, M., & Brito, C. G. (2014). Mindfulness-based emotional balance: navigating life’s “full catastrophe” with greater ease and resilience. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Press.
Eisenberg, N. (2002). Empathy-related emotional responses, altruism, and their socialization. In R. J. Davidson & A. Harrington (Eds.), Visions of compassion: western scientists and Tibetan Buddhists examine human nature (pp. 131–164). London: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., & Spinrad, T. L. (2006). Prosocial development. In N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.) & W. Damon & R. M. Lerner (Series Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, personality development (6th ed., pp. 646–718). Hoboken: Wiley.
Enright, R. D., & Fitzgibbons, R. P. (2000). Helping clients forgive: an empirical guide for resolving anger and restoring hope. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Flook, L., Goldberg, S. B., Pinger, L., Bonus, K., & Davidson, R. J. (2013). Mindfulness for teachers: a pilot study to assess effects on stress, burnout, and teaching efficacy. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7(3), 182–195. CrossRef
Ford, M. E. (1992). Motivating humans: goals, emotions, and personal agency beliefs. Newbury Park: Sage Publications. CrossRef
Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: an integrative review. Review of General Psychology. Special Issue: New Directions in Research on Emotion, 2, 271–299. CrossRef
Hamre, B. K., Pianta, R. C., Downer, J. T., & Mashburn, A. J. (2008). Teachers’ perceptions of conflict with young students: looking beyond problem behaviors. Social Development, 17, 115–136.
Han, W. T., Collie, K., Koopman, C., Azarow, J., Classen, C., Morrow, G. R., Michel, B., Breenan-O’Neil, E., & Spiegal, D. (2004). Breast cancer and problems with medical interactions: relationships with traumatic stress, emotional self-efficacy, and social support. Psychooncology, 14, 318–330. CrossRef
Harrison, J. L. (2014). Assessing generic and program-specific dose–response relations between engagement in contemplative practices and reductions in teachers’ occupational stress and burnout. Unpublished master’s thesis, Portland State University, Oregon.
Hwang, J. Y., Plante, T., & Lackey, K. (2008). The development of the Santa Clara brief compassion scale: an abbreviation of Sprecher and Fehr’s compassionate love scale. Pastoral Psychology, 56, 421–428. CrossRef
Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 491–525. CrossRef
Jennings, P., Lantieri, L., & Roeser, R. W. (2012). Supporting educational goals through cultivating mindfulness: approaches for teachers and students. In P. M. Brown, M. W. Corrigan, & A. Higgins-D’Alessandro (Eds.), Handbook of prosocial education. Lanham, MD: Rowan & Littlefield.
Johnson, S., Cooper, C., Cartwright, S., Donald, I., Taylor, P., & Millet, C. (2005). The experience of work-related stress across occupations. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20, 178–187. CrossRef
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your mind to face stress, pain and illness. New York: Dell Publishing.
Kemeny, M. E., Foltz, C., Cullen, M., Jennings, P., Gillath, O., Wallace, B. A., Cavanaugh, J. F., Giese-Davis, J., Rosenberg, E. L., Shaver, P. R., & Ekman, P. (2012). Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses. Emotion, 12, 338–350. CrossRefPubMed
Kyriacou, C. (2001). Teacher stress: directions for future research. Educational Review, 53, 27–35. CrossRef
Lambert, R. G., McCarthy, C. J., & Abbott-Shim, M. (2001). Classroom appraisal of resources and demands: school-age version. Atlanta, GA: Head Start Quality Research Center.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1987). Transactional theory and research on emotions and coping. European Journal of Personality, 1, 141–169. CrossRef
Luskin, F. M., Ginzburg, K., & Thoresen, C. E. (2005). The efficacy of forgiveness intervention in college age adults: randomized controlled study. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, 29, 163–184.
Lutz, A., Dunne, J. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Meditation and the neuroscience of con-sciousness. In P. Zelazo, M. Moscovitch, & E. Thompson (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of consciousness (pp. 499–555). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
McCullough, M. E. (2000). Forgiveness as human strength: theory, measurement, and links to well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 43–55. CrossRef
Mind and Life Education Research Network. (2012). Contemplative practices and mental training: prospects for American education. Child Development Perspectives, 6, 146–153. CrossRef
Montgomery, C., & Rupp, A. A. (2005). A meta-analysis for exploring the diverse causes and effects of stress in teachers. Canadian Journal of Education, 28, 458–486. CrossRef
Neff, K. D. (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2, 223–250. CrossRef
Palmer, P. (1998). Courage to teach: exploring the inner landscape of a teacher’s life. San Francisco: Wiley.
Pennebaker, J. W. (1997). Writing about emotional experiences as a therapeutic process. Psychological Science, 8, 162–166. CrossRef
Pennebaker, J.W., Francis, M.E., & Booth, R.J. (2001). Linguistic inquiry and word count: LIWC (2nd ed.) [Computer software]. Mahwah: Erlbaum.
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, 36(4), 717–731. CrossRef
Ringu Tulku Rinpoche, R. T., & Mullen, K. (2005). The Buddhist use of compassionate imagery in mind healing. In P. Gilbert (Ed.), Compassion: conceptualizations, research and use in psychotherapy (pp. 218–238). New York: Routledge.
Roeser, R. W., & Midgley, C. M. (1997). Teachers’ views of aspects of student mental health. The Elementary School Journal, 98, 115–133. CrossRef
Roeser, R. W., Skinner, E., Beers, J., & Jennings, P. A. (2012). Mindfulness training and teachers’ professional development: an emerging area of research and practice. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 167–173. CrossRef
Roeser, R. W., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Jha, A., Cullen, M., Wallace, L., Wilensky, R., Oberle, E., Thomson, K., Taylor, C., & Harrison, J. (2013). Mindfulness training and reductions in teacher stress and burnout: results from two randomized, waitlist-control field trials. Journal of Educational Psychology. doi: 10.1037/a0032093.
Singer, T., & Lamm, C. (2009). The social neuroscience of empathy. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2009, 81–96. CrossRef
Skinner, E.A. and Beers. J. (2015). Mindfulness and teachers’ coping in the classroom: a developmental model of teacher stress, coping and everyday resilience. K. Schonert-Reichl & R. W. Roeser (Co-Eds.), Handbook on Mindfulness in Education: Emerging Theory, Research, and Programs. Springer-Verlag (in press).
Skinner, E. A., & Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J. (2009). Challenges to the developmental study of coping. In E. Skinner & M. Zimmer-Gembeck (Eds.). Coping and the development of regulation. A volume for the series, R. W. Larson & L. A. Jensen (Eds.-in-Chief), New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development (pp. 5–17). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. In S. Leinhart (Ed.), Sociological methodology 1982 (pp. 290–312). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Tirch, D. (2010). Mindfulness as a context for the cultivation of compassion. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 3, 113–123. CrossRef
Vago, D. R., & Silbersweig, D. A. (2012). Self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART): a framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 1–30. CrossRef
Waltman, M. A., Russell, D. C., Coyle, C. T., Enright, R. D., Holter, A. C., & Swoboda, C. M. (2009). The effects of a forgiveness intervention on patients with coronary artery disease. Psychology & Health, 24, 11–27. CrossRef
Worthington, E. L. (2010). The new science of forgiveness. In D. Keltner, J. Marsh, & J. A. Smith (Eds.), The compassionate instinct: the science of human goodness (pp. 62–71). New York, NY: Norton.
- Examining Ways That a Mindfulness-Based Intervention Reduces Stress in Public School Teachers: a Mixed-Methods Study
Robert W. Roeser
- Springer US