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Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 1/2007

01-02-2007 | Original Paper

Examining Subtypes of Behavior Problems Among 3-Year-Old Children, Part I: Investigating Validity of Subtypes and Biological Risk-Factors

Auteurs: Elizabeth A. Harvey, Julie L. Friedman-Weieneth, Lauren H. Goldstein, Alison H. Sherman

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 1/2007

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Abstract

This study examined 3-year-old children who were classified as hyperactive (HYP), oppositional-defiant (OD), hyperactive and oppositional defiant (HYP/OD), and non-problem based on mothers’ reports of behavior. Using fathers,’ teachers,’ and observers’ ratings of children's behavior, concurrent validity was excellent for the HYP/OD group, moderate for the HYP group, and poor for the OD group. As predicted, both the HYP/OD and HYP groups reported more prenatal/perinatal birth complications and a greater family history of hyperactivity than did non-problem children. Furthermore, the HYP/OD group showed a greater family history of conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms than did non-problem children; however, the HYP group also showed a greater family history of ODD than did non-problem children. Results suggest that as early as age 3, these behavior subtypes appear to be linked to biologically-based risk-factors in ways that are consistent with theories of the development of ADHD.
Voetnoten
1
We did attempt to screen for children with elevated levels of inattention without hyperactivity. However, consistent with findings of Applegate et al. (1997), few children showed elevated attention problems without hyperactivity.
 
2
One additional child was recruited into the non-problem comparison group; however, behavioral observations and child care provider ratings indicated clinically significant levels of behavior problems, so he was not included.
 
3
Response rates could not be calculated for sites where packets were presented in a display for interested parents to take. At sites where packets were delivered directly to parents of 3-year-olds (e.g., via mail and through some pediatric practices), 20% of packets were completed and returned. However, this likely underestimates the response rate because many parents may have received more than one packet.
 
4
Partway through the recruitment phase, we began to use a shortened version of the BASC-PRS at the screening, because staff at recruitment sites reported that the length of the BASC seemed to be a deterrent to many parents with lower education. The shortened BASC contained items from the hyperactivity, aggression, attention problems, anxiety, and depression subscales. The full BASC-PRS was administered to all families at the first home visit.
 
5
Because we had difficulty recruiting enough Latino children who were eligible for the comparison group to fully match on ethnicity, European American children were selected to match some of the Latino externalizing children.
 
6
Allen et al. (1998) also included caffeine use in the substance use category and local anesthesia in the difficult delivery category. We did not include them because incidence rates were so high for each of these.
 
7
Mothers were not able to report on the child's fathers’ history of behavior problems in 29 of the families. Of the remaining 229 families, fathers were present to report on their symptoms for 147 families. An additional 82 mothers reported that they had sufficient second-hand information about the fathers’ childhood behavior to provide ratings. One hundred ninety-three families reported on the biological fathers’ siblings, and the father was present for 140 of these families. Ratings of paternal and paternal siblings’ hyperactivity, ODD, or CD symptoms did not differ significantly as a function of fathers’ presence during the interview (all p’s > .10).
 
8
In the few cases in which only the father completed the DISC or the screening BASC, these measures were not included in the index, so that mothers’ reports could be validated using fathers’ reports.
 
9
We considered whether observations in some settings (testing, structured vs. unstructured observation) might be more sensitive to differences across groups, particularly given these modest intercorrelations. Patterns of differences were in fact similar across settings, except that the HYP/OD group was rated as significantly more active than the non-problem group during the videotaped mother-child interaction (p < .05), but not during testing (p=.99).
 
10
Because both teachers and fathers identified children in the HYP/OD group as more oppositional-defiant/aggressive than children in the HYP group, but observational data did not, further analyses were conducted to explore this discrepancy. Chi-square tests were conducted to compare children in the HYP and HYP/OD groups on the presence or absence of each of the 8 DISC ODD symptoms. The six symptoms that were significant (all p's < .001) involved displays of anger and hostile behavior toward others; differences were not significant for argues (p=.11) and defiance (p=.20). This could explain why the HYP/OD and HYP groups did not differ on observed defiance/verbal aggression, but does not account for findings on observed negative affect.
 
11
We have chosen to use blocking variables rather than entering education as a covariate because of the potential pitfalls of using ANCOVAs to adjust for pre-existing group differences (Keppel & Wickens, 2004).
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Examining Subtypes of Behavior Problems Among 3-Year-Old Children, Part I: Investigating Validity of Subtypes and Biological Risk-Factors
Auteurs
Elizabeth A. Harvey
Julie L. Friedman-Weieneth
Lauren H. Goldstein
Alison H. Sherman
Publicatiedatum
01-02-2007
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 1/2007
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-006-9087-y