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Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology 1/2007

01-02-2007 | Original Paper

Examining Subtypes of Behavior Problems Among 3-Year-Old Children, Part III: Investigating Differences in Parenting Practices and Parenting Stress

Auteurs: Lauren H. Goldstein, Elizabeth A. Harvey, Julie L. Friedman-Weieneth

Gepubliceerd in: Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology | Uitgave 1/2007

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Abstract

This study examined parenting of mothers and fathers of 3-year-old children who were classified as hyperactive (HYP), hyperactive and oppositional defiant (HYP/OD), and non-problem based on mothers' reports of behavior. Parents of children with HYP/OD were less warm, showed more negative affect, and more laxness than parents of non-problem children; however, contrary to prediction, they did not differ significantly from parents of children in the HYP group. Compared to mothers of non-problem children, mothers of children in the HYP/OD group reported significantly more parenting stress across all domains, whereas mothers of children in the HYP group only reported elevated levels of stress associated with having a difficult child. Theoretical and treatment implications are discussed.
Voetnoten
1
In Part I of this series (Harvey, Friedman-Weieneth, Goldstein, & Sherman, 2006), only a small group of children were identified who were reported to display ODD symptoms without hyperactivity. Furthermore, there was not sufficient validity for this group based on teachers' and observers' ratings to justify further analyses with this group.
 
2
Stormont-Spurgin and Zentall (1995) studied children aged 3 to 5, but the majority were over 3 years old.
 
3
The nurturance factor of a modified version of the Child Rearing Practices Report (Rickel & Biasatti, 1982) was administered in addition to the measures described below. However, this measure, which uses a 7-point Likert scale, was dropped from analyses due to limited variability (median score was 6.22 for mothers and 6.06 for fathers).
 
4
We have chosen to use blocking variables rather than entering education as a covariate because of the potential pitfalls of using ANCOVAs to adjust for pre-existing group differences (Keppel & Wickens, 2004).
 
5
Because correlations were modest, we also explored whether there were different patterns of results for different measures. The pattern of results was the same across measures of maternal negative affect/overreactivity. Mothers' self-reported laxness, but not observed laxness, differed across the groups in the same direction as the aggregated laxness score. The pattern was similar for audiotaped and videotaped maternal warmth except that the HYP/OD group was also significantly lower than the HYP group on audiotaped, but not videotaped, maternal warmth.
 
6
We considered whether the reason that more parenting differences were observed across groups for mothers than for fathers may have been that mothers' reports were used to create the behavior groups. However, when fathers' reports were used to create subgroups, findings were similar to or somewhat weaker than when mothers' reports of children's behavior were used. Only fathers' self-reported overreactivity became significant when fathers' reports of child behavior were used. Observed paternal negative affect and observed paternal warmth, which were both significantly different across the groups using mothers' reports of children's behavior problems, were not significant using fathers' reports of children's behavior.
 
7
Because this finding stands in contrast with previous research on physical punishment (Deater-Deckard et al., 1996), we also explored whether results would change if the Parenting Scale spanking item were used rather than the broad negativity/overreactivity scores. The pattern of means across the behavior groups for the spanking item was similar to that of the negativity/overreactivity scores among African American children.
 
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Metagegevens
Titel
Examining Subtypes of Behavior Problems Among 3-Year-Old Children, Part III: Investigating Differences in Parenting Practices and Parenting Stress
Auteurs
Lauren H. Goldstein
Elizabeth A. Harvey
Julie L. Friedman-Weieneth
Publicatiedatum
01-02-2007
Gepubliceerd in
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology / Uitgave 1/2007
Print ISSN: 2730-7166
Elektronisch ISSN: 2730-7174
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-006-9047-6

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