Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Publisher’s note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
This study examined the external influences and internal processes in parental beliefs, perceptions, and emotions regarding the parenting of adolescent children and the role of parental indulgence.
Interviews of 29 parents of adolescents, who were approximately 15 years old, were conducted regarding the perceptions of parental indulgence they had experienced and currently practice. The study incorporated a family ecosystem approach with qualitative analytic methods including MAXQDA to identify thematic findings.
Findings revealed three themes and their subthemes: (1) Responding to the external world: Family life adjustments and indulgence, which encompassed (a) Family life adjustments (i.e., divorce, separation) and managing (b) Increased demands (i.e., responsibilities at home and school); (2) Reflecting on the parenting patterns in hindsight—Internal search for clarity and effectiveness with an in-depth (a) Parent reflection process regarding their choice to indulge, and (b) Clear parenting choices, or, exceptions to indulgence; and (3) Reconciling personal experiences of being parented: Discontinuity and continuity, involved reflections on parents desire to change or keep the parenting practices modeled by their caregivers. Emotional experiences were shaped by parents’ own perceptions that parenting needs to be effective, but vulnerability occurred when faced with distractions in the family due to internal pressures such as marital disruptions and external stresses of social norms and cultural expectations.
Results demonstrate how parents emotionally cope with pressure and how multiple emotional undertones potentially drive their decisions to indulge. Directions for future research are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
ABC News (2007). Helicopter parents hover over kids’ lives. https://abcnews.go.com/GMA/story?id=3699441.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43–88. CrossRef
Barlow, J., Coren, E., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2009). Parent-training programs for improving maternal psychosocial health (review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, 1–155. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002020.pub2. CrossRef
Beutler, I. F., & Gudmunson, C. G. (2012). New adolescent money attitude scales: entitlement and conscientiousness. Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning, 23(2), 18–31.
Berg, B. L. (2007). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. Boston: Pearson.
Bredehoft, D., Mennicke, S., Potter, A., & Clarke, J. (1998). Perceptions attributed by adults to parental overindulgence during childhood. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences Education, 16, 3–17.
Chen, Z., & Kaplan, H. B. (2001). Intergenerational transmission of constructive parenting. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 17–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00017x. CrossRef
Clarke, J.I., Dawson, C., & Bredehoft, D. (2014). How much is too much? Raising likeable, responsible, respectful children in an age of overindulgence. Boston, MA: Da Capo Press.
Cosson, B., & Graham, C. (2012). “I felt like a third wheel”: father’s stories of exclusion from the ‘parenting team. Journal of Family Studies, 18, 121–129. https://doi.org/10.5172/jfs.2012.18.2-3.121. CrossRef
Creswell, J.W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among the five traditions. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Cui, M., Graber, J., Metz, A., & Darling, C. (2019). Parental indulgence, self-regulation and young adults’ behavioral and emotional problems. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 233–249. https://doi.org/10.1080/13229400.2016.1237884. CrossRef
Darling, C. A., & Cassidy, D. (2014). Family life education: Working with families across the lifespan. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
Darling, C.A., Cassidy, D., & Rehm, M. (2019). The foundations of family life education model: Understanding the field. Family Relations, Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1111/fare.12372.
Darling, C. A., Rehm, M., Coccia, C., & Cui, M. (2015). Adolescent eating behavior: The role of indulgent parenting. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 96, 257–267. https://doi.org/10.1606/1044-3894.2015.96.36. CrossRef
Deutsch, G., & Connelly, C. (2009). “Helicopter moms:” Hurting or helping your kids? ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/2020/Parenting/story?id=8418453.
Fainsilber Katz, L., Maliken, A. C., & Stettler, N. M. (2012). Parental meta-emotion philosophy: a review of research and theoretical framework. Child Development Perspectives, 6, 417–422. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00244.x. CrossRef
Fusch, P. I., & Ness, L. R. (2015). Are we there yet? Data saturation in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 20, 1408–1416. http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR20/9/fusch1.pdf.
Gannett, A.B. (2012). Self-sufficiency elusive to young adults of hovering parenting. USA Today. http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/jobcenter/workplace/bruzzese/story/2012-026/helicopterparents-hurt-generation-of-workers/57292900/1.
Gibbs, N. (2009). The growing backlash against overparenting. Time. http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/printout/0,8816,1940697,00.html.
Jacksonville Times-Union. (2013). Was it “affluenza” or permissive parenting? https://www.jacksonville.com/news/schools/2013-12-27/story/was-it-affluenza-or-permissive-parenting.
Joyce, A. (2019) The college admissions scandal is more proof that helicopter parenting hurts kids. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/2019/03/12/college-admissions-scandal-is-more-proof-that-helicopter-parenting-hurts-kids/.
Kindlon, D. J. (2001). Too much of a good thing: Raising children of character in an indulgent age. New York: Miramax Books.
Kokkinos, C. M., & Voulgaridou, J. (2017). Links between relational aggression, parenting and personality among adolescents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14, 249–264. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2016.1194265. CrossRef
Levine, M. (2012). Raising successful children. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/05/opinion/sunday/raising-successful-children.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.
Lieberman, A. F. (2018). Reflections on the theoretical contributions and clinical applications of parental insightfulness. Attachment and Human Development, 20, 333–340. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2018.1446740. CrossRefPubMed
Luyckx, K., Tildesley, E. A., Soenens, B., Andrews, J. A., Hampson, S. E., Peterson, M., & Duriez, B. (2011). Parenting and trajectories of children’s maladaptive behaviors: A 12-year prospective community study. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40, 468–478. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2011.563470. CrossRef
Maccoby, E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In E.M. Hetherington & P.H. Mussen (Eds), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (pp.1–101). New York: Wiley.
Maliken, A. C., & Fainsilber Katz, L. (2013). Exploring the impact of parent psychopathology and emotion regulation on evidence-based parenting interventions: A transdiagnostic approach to improving treatment effectiveness. Clinical Child and Family Psychological Review, 16, 173–186. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-013-0132-4. CrossRef
Marano, H. E. (2008). A nation of wimps. New York: Random House.
Martinez, I., & Garcia, J. F. (2008). Internalization of values and self-esteem among Brazilian teenagers from authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful homes. Adolescence, 43, 13–29. PubMed
Menting, A. T. A., de Castro, B. O., & Matthys, W. (2013). Effectiveness of the incredible years parent training to modify disruptive and prosocial child behavior: a meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 901–913. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2013.07.006. CrossRefPubMed
Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
Rehm, M., Darling, C., Coccia, C., & Cui, M. (2017). Parents’ perspectives on indulgence: Remembered experiences and meanings when they were adolescents and as current parents of adolescents. Journal of Family Studies, 23, 278–295. https://doi.org/10.1080/13229400.2015.1106335. CrossRef
Sandler, I. N., Schoenfelder, E. N., Wolchik, S. A., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2011). Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: Lasting effects but uncertain processes. The Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 299–329. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.121208.131619. CrossRefPubMed
Shenton, A. K. (2004). Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Education for Information, 22(2), 63–75. CrossRef
Steinberg, L., Blatt-Eisengart, I., & Cauffman, E. (2006). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful homes: A replication in a sample of serious juvenile offenders. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16, 47–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2006.00119.x. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Smetana, J. G. (2017). Current research on parenting styles, dimensions, and beliefs. Current Opinion in Psychology, 15, 19–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/jcopsyc.2017.02.012. CrossRefPubMed
Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
United States Census Bureau. (2018a). Quick facts: Leon County Florida, 2013–2017. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/leoncountyflorida.
United States Census Bureau. (2018b) Quick facts: United States, 2013–2017. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US#.
Veldorale-Griffin, A., Coccia, C., Darling, C. A., Rehm, M., & Sathe, S. (2013). The role of parental indulgence and economic stress in life satisfaction: Differential perceptions of parents and adolescents. Journal of Family Social Work, 16, 205–224. https://doi.org/10.1080/10522158.2013.786776. CrossRef
VERBI Software. (2017). MAXQDA 2018 (computer software). Berlin, Germany: VERBI Software. https://www.maxqda.com.
White, J., Martin, T., & Adamsons, K. (2019). Family Theories: An Introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Examining Parental Internal Processes Associated with Indulgent Parenting: A Thematic Analysis
Sarah N. Wolford
Carol A. Darling
- Springer US