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A specific model involving optimism and hope as predictors of suicide risk, namely, depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, was tested in a sample of 508 (242 male and 266 female) Hungarian college students. Beyond the distinct influence of the two predictors on both depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, optimism and hope were also hypothesized to interact together to predict both outcomes. Results of regression analyses indicated that optimism and hope were significant and unique predictors of lower depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. Noteworthy, beyond optimism and hope, the optimism × hope interaction term was found to significantly augment the prediction of both depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. Specifically, optimists with high hope showed the highest amount of protection from depressive symptoms, but not suicide ideation. In contrast, pessimists with low hope consistently showed the least amount of protection from both depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. Some implications of the present findings for understanding protective factors of suicide risk are discussed.
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- Examining Optimism and Hope as Protective Factors of Suicide Risk in Hungarian College Students: Is Risk Highest Among Those Lacking Positive Psychological Protection?
Edward C. Chang
Olivia D. Chang
Kaitlin M. Wright
Alexandria S.-M. Najarian
- Springer US