Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Event schemas (generalized knowledge of what happens at common real-life events, e.g., a birthday party) are an important cognitive tool for social understanding: They provide structure for social experiences while accounting for many variable aspects. Using an event narratives task, this study tested the hypotheses that theory of mind (ToM) deficits and weak central coherence (WCC, a local processing bias) undermine different aspects of event knowledge in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Event narratives of ASD ToM-failers were overall significantly impaired. ASD ToM-passers showed more specific abnormalities relating to variable activities, and some of these were significantly associated to WCC. Abnormalities in event knowledge might help linking ASD-typical social deficits in real-life situations and the adherence to inflexible routines.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychological Association (APA) (1994). DSM-IV diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC.
Baron-Cohen, S. (1995). Mindblindness. An essay on theory of mind and autism. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Book, MIT Press.
Baron-Cohen, S., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Cohen, D. (Eds.). (1993). Understanding other minds: Perspectives from autism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Baron-Cohen, S., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Cohen D. (Eds.). (2000). Understanding other minds: Perspectives from cognitive neuroscience. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bauer, P. J., Dow, G. A., Bittinger, K. A., & Wenner, J. A. (1998). Accepting and exempting the unexpected: 30-month-olds’ generalization of event knowledge. Cognitive Development, 13, 421–452. CrossRef
Bauer, P. J., & Fivush, R. (1992). Constructing event representations: Building on a foundation of variation and enabling relations. Cognitive Development, 7, 381–401. CrossRef
Bauer, P. J., & Mandler, J. M. (1989). One thing follows another: Effects of temporal structure on 1- to 2-year-olds’ recall of events. Developmental Psychology, 25(2), 197–206. CrossRef
Booth, R., & Happé, F. (2007). Weak central coherence in autism: Global and local sentence completions. (Manuscript submitted for publication).
Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Cuccaro, M. L., Shao, Y., Grubber, J., Slifer, M., Wolpert, D. M., Donnelly, S. L., Abramson, R. K., Ravan, S. A., Wright, H. H., DeLong, G. R., Pericak-Vance, M. A. (2003). Factor analysis of restricted and repetitive behaviors in autism using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-R. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 31(1), 3–17. CrossRef
Dahlgren, S. O., & Trillingsgaard, A. (1996). Theory of mind in non-retarded children with autism and Asperger’s Syndrome. A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37(6), 759–763. CrossRef
Feldman, C. F. (1989). Monologues as problem solving narratives . In K. Nelson (Ed.), Narratives from the crib (pp. 98–119). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
French, L. A. (1985). Real-world knowledge as the basis of social and cognitive development. In J. B. Pryor, & J. D. Day (Eds.), The development of social cognition (pp. 179–209). New York: Springer Verlag.
Frith, U. (1989). Autism. Explaining the Enigma. Oxford: Blackwell.
Happé, F. G. E. (1997). Central coherence and theory of mind in autism: Reading homographs in context. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15, 1–12.
Happé, F. (2001). Social and non-social development: Where are the links? In J. A. Burack, T. Charman, N. Yirmiya, & P. R. Zelazo (Eds.), Perspectives on development in autism. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Hudson, J. A. (1988). Children’s memory for atypical actions in script-based stories: Evidence for a disruption effect. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 46, 159–173. CrossRef
Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., & Volkmar, F. (2003). The enactive mind, or from actions to cognition: lessons from autism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal London B series, 358, 345–360. CrossRef
Leslie, A. M. (1987). Pretense and representation: The origins of “theory of mind”. Psychological Review, 94, 412–426. CrossRef
Loth, E., Gómez, J. C., & Happé, F. (2006). Weak central coherence in autism spectrum disorders: Specificity, universality, and the relation between cognitive biases in the visual-spatial and verbal-semantic domains (Manuscript submitted for publication).
Loth, E., Happé F., & Gómez, J. C. (in preparation). “Variety is not the spice of life for people with autism spectrum disorder”: Frequency judgements of the occurrences of central, variable and inappropriate actions in common real-life events.
Loveland, K. A., & Tunali, B. (1993). Narrative language in autism, the theory of mind hypothesis: a wider perspective. In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg, & D. Cohen (Eds.), Understanding other minds. Perspectives from autism (pp. 247–266). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lucariello, J., & Nelson, K. (1985). Slot-filler categories as memory organizers for young children. Developmental Psychology, 21, 272–282. CrossRef
Meltzoff, A. N. (2002). Imitation as a mechanism of social cognition: Origins of empathy, theory of mind, and the representation of action. In U. Goswami (Ed.), Blackwell handbook of childhood cognitive development (pp. 6–25). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers. CrossRef
Nadel, J., Guérini, C., Pezé, A., & Rivet, C. (1999). The evolving nature of imitation as a format of communication. In J. Nadel, & G. Butterworth (Eds.), Imitation in Infancy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nelson, K. (1986). Event knowledge. Structure and Function in Development. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Nelson, K., & Gruendel, J. M. (1981). Generalized event representation: Basic building blocks of cognitive development . In E. Brown, & M. Lamb (Eds.), Advances in developmental psychology (Vol. 1). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Nelson, K., & Gruendel, J. (1986). Children's scripts. In K. Nelson (Ed.), Event knowledge: Structure and function in development (pp. 21–46). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Rogers, S. (1999). An examination of the imitation deficits in autism. In J. Nadel, & G. Butterworth (Eds.), Imitation in infancy: Cambridge studies in cognitive perceptual development (pp. 254–283). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Schank, R., & Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, plans, goals and understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Schultz, R. T. (2005). Developmental deficits in social perception in autism: the role of the amygdala and fusiform face area. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 125–141.
Shore, B. (1996). Culture in mind: Cognition, culture, and the problem of meaning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Shweder, R. A. (1991). Thinking through cultures. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Siegel, S., & Castellan, N. J. (1988). Nonparametric statistics for the behavioural sciences: McGraw-Hill.
Tager-Flusberg, H., & Sullivan, K. (1995). Attributing mental states to story characters– a comparison of narratives produced by autistic and mentally-retarded individuals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 16(3), 241–256. CrossRef
Tomasello, M. (1999). The cultural origins of human cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Trillingsgaard, A. (1999). The script model in relation to autism. European Journal of Adolescent Psychiatry, 8(1), 45–49. CrossRef
Wechsler, D. (1974). Wechsler intelligence scale for children – revised. New York: The Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (1981). Wechsler adult intelligence scale – revised. New York: The Psychological Corporation.
Winner, E., & Leekam, S. (1991). Distinguishing irony from deception: Understanding the speaker’s second-order intention. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 257–270.
Witkin, H. A., Oltman, P. K., Raskin, E., & Karp, S. (1971). A manual for the embedded figures test. California: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Yirmyia, N., Solomonica-Levi, D., Shulman, C., & Pilowsky, T. (1996). Theory of mind abilities in individuals with autism, Down Syndrome, and mental retardation of unknow etiology: The role of age and intelligence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, 1003–1014. CrossRef
- Event Schemas in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Theory of Mind and Weak Central Coherence
Juan Carlos Gómez
- Springer US