Skip to main content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence 3/2017

31-05-2016 | Empirical Research

Evaluation of Yoga for Preventing Adolescent Substance Use Risk Factors in a Middle School Setting: A Preliminary Group-Randomized Controlled Trial

Auteurs: Bethany Butzer, Amanda LoRusso, Sunny H. Shin, Sat Bir S. Khalsa

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Youth and Adolescence | Uitgave 3/2017

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

Adolescence is a key developmental period for preventing substance use initiation, however prevention programs solely providing educational information about the dangers of substance use rarely change adolescent substance use behaviors. Recent research suggests that mind–body practices such as yoga may have beneficial effects on several substance use risk factors, and that these practices may serve as promising interventions for preventing adolescent substance use. The primary aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of yoga for reducing substance use risk factors during early adolescence. Seventh-grade students in a public school were randomly assigned by classroom to receive either a 32-session yoga intervention (n = 117) in place of their regular physical education classes or to continue with physical-education-as-usual (n = 94). Participants (63.2 % female; 53.6 % White) completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires assessing emotional self-regulation, perceived stress, mood impairment, impulsivity, substance use willingness, and actual substance use. Participants also completed questionnaires at 6-months and 1-year post-intervention. Results revealed that participants in the control condition were significantly more willing to try smoking cigarettes immediately post-intervention than participants in the yoga condition. Immediate pre- to post-intervention differences did not emerge for the remaining outcomes. However, long-term follow-up analyses revealed a pattern of delayed effects in which females in the yoga condition, and males in the control condition, demonstrated improvements in emotional self-control. The findings suggest that school-based yoga may have beneficial effects with regard to preventing males’ and females’ willingness to smoke cigarettes, as well as improving emotional self-control in females. However additional research is required, particularly with regard to the potential long-term effects of mind–body interventions in school settings. The present study contributes to the literature on adolescence by examining school-based yoga as a novel prevention program for substance use risk factors.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Literatuur
go back to reference Barnes, P. M., Bloom, B., & Nahin, R. L. (2008). Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007. National Health Statistics Reports, 12, 1–23. Barnes, P. M., Bloom, B., & Nahin, R. L. (2008). Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007. National Health Statistics Reports, 12, 1–23.
go back to reference Bergen-Cico, D., Razza, R., & Timmins, A. (2015). Fostering self-regulation through curriculum infusion of mindful yoga: A pilot study of efficacy and feasibility. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(11), 3448–3461. CrossRef Bergen-Cico, D., Razza, R., & Timmins, A. (2015). Fostering self-regulation through curriculum infusion of mindful yoga: A pilot study of efficacy and feasibility. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(11), 3448–3461. CrossRef
go back to reference Black, L. I., Clarke, T. C., Barnes, P. M., Stussman, B. J., & Nahin, R. L. (2015). Use of complementary health approaches among children aged 4–17 years in the united states: National health interview survey, 2007–2012. National Health Statistics Reports, 78, 1–19. Black, L. I., Clarke, T. C., Barnes, P. M., Stussman, B. J., & Nahin, R. L. (2015). Use of complementary health approaches among children aged 4–17 years in the united states: National health interview survey, 2007–2012. National Health Statistics Reports, 78, 1–19.
go back to reference Black, D. S., Sussman, S., Johnson, C. A., & Milam, J. (2012a). Testing the indirect effect of trait mindfulness on adolescent cigarette smoking through negative affect and perceived stress mediators. Journal of Substance Use, 17(5–6), 417–429. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Black, D. S., Sussman, S., Johnson, C. A., & Milam, J. (2012a). Testing the indirect effect of trait mindfulness on adolescent cigarette smoking through negative affect and perceived stress mediators. Journal of Substance Use, 17(5–6), 417–429. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Black, D. S., Sussman, S., Johnson, C. A., & Milam, J. (2012b). Trait mindfulness helps shield decision-making from translating into health-risk behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(6), 588–592. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Black, D. S., Sussman, S., Johnson, C. A., & Milam, J. (2012b). Trait mindfulness helps shield decision-making from translating into health-risk behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(6), 588–592. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Bryan, S., Pinto, Z. G., & Parasher, R. (2012). The effects of yoga on psychosocial variables and exercise adherence: A randomized, controlled pilot study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 18(5), 50–59. PubMed Bryan, S., Pinto, Z. G., & Parasher, R. (2012). The effects of yoga on psychosocial variables and exercise adherence: A randomized, controlled pilot study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 18(5), 50–59. PubMed
go back to reference Butzer, B., Bury, D., Telles, S., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2016). Implementing yoga within the school curriculum: A scientific rationale for improving social-emotional learning and positive student outcomes. Journal of Children’s Services, 11(1), 3–24. CrossRef Butzer, B., Bury, D., Telles, S., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2016). Implementing yoga within the school curriculum: A scientific rationale for improving social-emotional learning and positive student outcomes. Journal of Children’s Services, 11(1), 3–24. CrossRef
go back to reference Butzer, B., Ebert, M., Telles, S., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2015a). School-based yoga programs in the United States: A survey. Advances in Mind Body Medicine, 29, 18–26. PubMedPubMedCentral Butzer, B., Ebert, M., Telles, S., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2015a). School-based yoga programs in the United States: A survey. Advances in Mind Body Medicine, 29, 18–26. PubMedPubMedCentral
go back to reference Butzer, B., van Over, M., Noggle Taylor, J. J., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2015). Yoga may mitigate decreases in high school grades. Evidence- Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM, ID 259814, 1–8. Butzer, B., van Over, M., Noggle Taylor, J. J., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2015). Yoga may mitigate decreases in high school grades. Evidence- Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM, ID 259814, 1–8.
go back to reference Calajoe, A. (1987). Yoga as a therapeutic component in treating chemical dependency. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 3(4), 33–46. CrossRef Calajoe, A. (1987). Yoga as a therapeutic component in treating chemical dependency. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 3(4), 33–46. CrossRef
go back to reference Carim-Todd, L., Mitchell, S. H., & Oken, B. S. (2013). Mind–body practices: An alternative, drug-free treatment for smoking cessation? A systematic review of the literature. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132(3), 399–410. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Carim-Todd, L., Mitchell, S. H., & Oken, B. S. (2013). Mind–body practices: An alternative, drug-free treatment for smoking cessation? A systematic review of the literature. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132(3), 399–410. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Chan, Y. F., Dennis, M. L., & Funk, R. R. (2008). Prevalence and comorbidity of major internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents and adults presenting to substance abuse treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 34(1), 14–24. PubMedCrossRef Chan, Y. F., Dennis, M. L., & Funk, R. R. (2008). Prevalence and comorbidity of major internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents and adults presenting to substance abuse treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 34(1), 14–24. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Chassin, L. (2015). Self-regulation and adolescent substance use. In G. Oettingen & P. M. Gollwitzer (Eds.), Self-regulation in adolescence (pp. 266–287). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef Chassin, L. (2015). Self-regulation and adolescent substance use. In G. Oettingen & P. M. Gollwitzer (Eds.), Self-regulation in adolescence (pp. 266–287). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2014). Are mindfulness-based interventions effective for substance use disorders? A systematic review of the evidence. Substance Use and Misuse, 49(5), 492–512. PubMedCrossRef Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2014). Are mindfulness-based interventions effective for substance use disorders? A systematic review of the evidence. Substance Use and Misuse, 49(5), 492–512. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385–396. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385–396.
go back to reference Conboy, L. A., Noggle, J. J., Frey, J. L., Kudesia, R. S., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2013). Qualitative evaluation of a high school yoga program: Feasibility and perceived benefits. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 9(3), 171–180. CrossRef Conboy, L. A., Noggle, J. J., Frey, J. L., Kudesia, R. S., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2013). Qualitative evaluation of a high school yoga program: Feasibility and perceived benefits. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 9(3), 171–180. CrossRef
go back to reference Cramer, H., Lauche, R., Haller, H., Steckhan, N., Michalsen, A., & Dobos, G. (2014). Effects of yoga on cardiovascular disease risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Cardiology, 173(2), 170–183. PubMedCrossRef Cramer, H., Lauche, R., Haller, H., Steckhan, N., Michalsen, A., & Dobos, G. (2014). Effects of yoga on cardiovascular disease risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Cardiology, 173(2), 170–183. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cramer, H., Lauche, R., Langhorst, J., & Dobos, G. (2013). Yoga for depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Depression and Anxiety, 30(11), 1068–1083. PubMedCrossRef Cramer, H., Lauche, R., Langhorst, J., & Dobos, G. (2013). Yoga for depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Depression and Anxiety, 30(11), 1068–1083. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Cross, C. P., Copping, L. T., & Campbell, A. (2011). Sex differences in impulsivity: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 137(1), 97. PubMedCrossRef Cross, C. P., Copping, L. T., & Campbell, A. (2011). Sex differences in impulsivity: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 137(1), 97. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Dakwar, E., & Levin, F. R. (2009). The emerging role of meditation in addressing psychiatric illness, with a focus on substance use disorders. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 17(4), 254–267. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Dakwar, E., & Levin, F. R. (2009). The emerging role of meditation in addressing psychiatric illness, with a focus on substance use disorders. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 17(4), 254–267. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Daly, L. A., Haden, S. C., Hagins, M., Papouchis, N., & Ramirez, P. M. (2015). Yoga and emotion regulation in high school students: A randomized controlled trial. Evidence- Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Article ID 794928, 1–8. Daly, L. A., Haden, S. C., Hagins, M., Papouchis, N., & Ramirez, P. M. (2015). Yoga and emotion regulation in high school students: A randomized controlled trial. Evidence- Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Article ID 794928, 1–8.
go back to reference Dhawan, A., Chopra, A., Jain, R., & Yadav, D. (2015). Effectiveness of yogic breathing intervention on quality of life of opioid dependent users. International Journal of Yoga, 8(2), 144. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Dhawan, A., Chopra, A., Jain, R., & Yadav, D. (2015). Effectiveness of yogic breathing intervention on quality of life of opioid dependent users. International Journal of Yoga, 8(2), 144. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405–432. PubMedCrossRef Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405–432. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Felver, J. C., Butzer, B., Olson, K. J., Smith, I. M., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2015). Yoga in public school improves adolescent mood and affect. Contemporary School Psychology, 19(3), 184–192. PubMedCrossRef Felver, J. C., Butzer, B., Olson, K. J., Smith, I. M., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2015). Yoga in public school improves adolescent mood and affect. Contemporary School Psychology, 19(3), 184–192. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Ferreira-Vorkapic, C., Feitoza, J., Marchioro, M., Simões, J., Kozasa, E., & Telles, S. (2015). Are there benefits from teaching yoga at schools? A systematic review of randomized control trials of yoga-based interventions. Evidence- Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Article ID 345835, 1–17. Ferreira-Vorkapic, C., Feitoza, J., Marchioro, M., Simões, J., Kozasa, E., & Telles, S. (2015). Are there benefits from teaching yoga at schools? A systematic review of randomized control trials of yoga-based interventions. Evidence- Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Article ID 345835, 1–17.
go back to reference Fishbein, D., Miller, S., Herman-Stahl, M., Williams, J., Lavery, B., Markovitz, L., & Johnson, M. (2015). Behavioral and psychophysiological effects of a yoga intervention on high-risk adolescents: A randomized control trial. Journal of Child and Family Studies,. doi: 10.​1007/​s10826-015-0231-6. Fishbein, D., Miller, S., Herman-Stahl, M., Williams, J., Lavery, B., Markovitz, L., & Johnson, M. (2015). Behavioral and psychophysiological effects of a yoga intervention on high-risk adolescents: A randomized control trial. Journal of Child and Family Studies,. doi: 10.​1007/​s10826-015-0231-6.
go back to reference Frank, J. L., Bose, B., & Schrobenhauser-Clonan, A. (2014). Effectiveness of a school-based yoga program on adolescent mental health, stress coping strategies, and attitudes toward violence: Findings from a high-risk sample. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 30(1), 29–49. CrossRef Frank, J. L., Bose, B., & Schrobenhauser-Clonan, A. (2014). Effectiveness of a school-based yoga program on adolescent mental health, stress coping strategies, and attitudes toward violence: Findings from a high-risk sample. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 30(1), 29–49. CrossRef
go back to reference Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., Ouellette, J. A., & Burzette, R. (1998). Cognitive antecedents to adolescent health risk: Discriminating between behavioral intention and behavioral willingness. Psychology and Health, 13(2), 319–339. CrossRef Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., Ouellette, J. A., & Burzette, R. (1998). Cognitive antecedents to adolescent health risk: Discriminating between behavioral intention and behavioral willingness. Psychology and Health, 13(2), 319–339. CrossRef
go back to reference Glassman, T., Werch, C. C., & Jobli, E. (2007). Alcohol self-control behaviors of adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 32(3), 590–597. PubMedCrossRef Glassman, T., Werch, C. C., & Jobli, E. (2007). Alcohol self-control behaviors of adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 32(3), 590–597. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Gould, M. S., Marrocco, F. A., Kleinman, M., Thomas, J. G., Mostkoff, K., Cote, J., & Davies, M. (2005). Evaluating iatrogenic risk of youth suicide screening programs. JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(13), 1635–1643. PubMedCrossRef Gould, M. S., Marrocco, F. A., Kleinman, M., Thomas, J. G., Mostkoff, K., Cote, J., & Davies, M. (2005). Evaluating iatrogenic risk of youth suicide screening programs. JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(13), 1635–1643. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Grant, B. F., Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Chou, S. P., Dufour, M. C., Compton, W., & Kaplan, K. (2004). Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(8), 807–816. PubMedCrossRef Grant, B. F., Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Chou, S. P., Dufour, M. C., Compton, W., & Kaplan, K. (2004). Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent mood and anxiety disorders: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(8), 807–816. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Greenberg, M. T. (2010). School-based prevention: Current status and future challenges. Effective Education, 2(1), 27–52. CrossRef Greenberg, M. T. (2010). School-based prevention: Current status and future challenges. Effective Education, 2(1), 27–52. CrossRef
go back to reference Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271–299. CrossRef Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2, 271–299. CrossRef
go back to reference Haden, S. C., Daly, L., & Hagins, M. (2014). A randomised controlled trial comparing the impact of yoga and physical education on the emotional and behavioural functioning of middle school children. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 19(3), 148–155. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Haden, S. C., Daly, L., & Hagins, M. (2014). A randomised controlled trial comparing the impact of yoga and physical education on the emotional and behavioural functioning of middle school children. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 19(3), 148–155. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Hagen, I., & Nayar, U. S. (2014). Yoga for children and young people’s mental health and well-being: Research review and reflections on the mental health potentials of yoga. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5(35), 1–6. Hagen, I., & Nayar, U. S. (2014). Yoga for children and young people’s mental health and well-being: Research review and reflections on the mental health potentials of yoga. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 5(35), 1–6.
go back to reference Hagins, M., Haden, S. C., & Daly, L. A. (2013). A randomized controlled trial on the effects of yoga on stress reactivity in 6th grade students. Evidence- Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Article ID 607134), 1–9. doi: 10.​1155/​2013/​607134. Hagins, M., Haden, S. C., & Daly, L. A. (2013). A randomized controlled trial on the effects of yoga on stress reactivity in 6th grade students. Evidence- Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Article ID 607134), 1–9. doi: 10.​1155/​2013/​607134.
go back to reference Hallgren, M., Romberg, K., Bakshi, A., & Andréasson, S. (2014). Yoga as an adjunct treatment for alcohol dependence: A pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 22(3), 441–445. PubMedCrossRef Hallgren, M., Romberg, K., Bakshi, A., & Andréasson, S. (2014). Yoga as an adjunct treatment for alcohol dependence: A pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 22(3), 441–445. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Harris, P. A., Taylor, R., Thielke, R., Payne, J., Gonzalez, N., & Conde, J. G. (2009). Research electronic data capture (REDCap)—a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 42(2), 377–381. PubMedCrossRef Harris, P. A., Taylor, R., Thielke, R., Payne, J., Gonzalez, N., & Conde, J. G. (2009). Research electronic data capture (REDCap)—a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 42(2), 377–381. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Harvey, P. D., Greenberg, B. R., & Serper, M. R. (1989). The affective lability scales: Development, reliability, and validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45(5), 786–793. PubMedCrossRef Harvey, P. D., Greenberg, B. R., & Serper, M. R. (1989). The affective lability scales: Development, reliability, and validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45(5), 786–793. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Hill, J. P., & Lynch, M. E. (1983). The intensification of gender-related role expectations during early adolescence. Girls at puberty (pp. 201–228). Berlin: Springer. Hill, J. P., & Lynch, M. E. (1983). The intensification of gender-related role expectations during early adolescence. Girls at puberty (pp. 201–228). Berlin: Springer.
go back to reference Himelstein, S., Saul, S., Garcia-Romeu, A., & Pinedo, D. (2014). Mindfulness training as an intervention for substance user incarcerated adolescents: A pilot grounded theory study. Substance Use and Misuse, 49(5), 560–570. PubMedCrossRef Himelstein, S., Saul, S., Garcia-Romeu, A., & Pinedo, D. (2014). Mindfulness training as an intervention for substance user incarcerated adolescents: A pilot grounded theory study. Substance Use and Misuse, 49(5), 560–570. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Idrisov, B., Sun, P., Akhmadeeva, L., Arpawong, T. E., Kukhareva, P., & Sussman, S. (2013). Immediate and six-month effects of project EX russia: A smoking cessation intervention pilot program. Addictive Behaviors, 38(8), 2402–2408. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Idrisov, B., Sun, P., Akhmadeeva, L., Arpawong, T. E., Kukhareva, P., & Sussman, S. (2013). Immediate and six-month effects of project EX russia: A smoking cessation intervention pilot program. Addictive Behaviors, 38(8), 2402–2408. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Jeter, P. E., Slutsky, J., Singh, N., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2015). Yoga as a therapeutic intervention: A bibliometric analysis of published research studies from 1967 to 2013. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 21(10), 586–592. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Jeter, P. E., Slutsky, J., Singh, N., & Khalsa, S. B. S. (2015). Yoga as a therapeutic intervention: A bibliometric analysis of published research studies from 1967 to 2013. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 21(10), 586–592. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2006). Monitoring the future: National survey results on drug use, 1975–2005. volume 1: Secondary school students, 2005. NIH Publication No. 06-5883. National Institute on Drug Abuse ( NIDA). Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2006). Monitoring the future: National survey results on drug use, 1975–2005. volume 1: Secondary school students, 2005. NIH Publication No. 06-5883. National Institute on Drug Abuse ( NIDA).
go back to reference Kaley-Isley, L. C., Peterson, J., Fischer, C., & Peterson, E. (2010). Yoga as a complementary therapy for children and adolescents: A guide for clinicians. Psychiatry (Edgmont), 7(8), 20–32. Kaley-Isley, L. C., Peterson, J., Fischer, C., & Peterson, E. (2010). Yoga as a complementary therapy for children and adolescents: A guide for clinicians. Psychiatry (Edgmont), 7(8), 20–32.
go back to reference Kallapiran, K., Koo, S., Kirubakaran, R., & Hancock, K. (2015). Review: Effectiveness of mindfulness in improving mental health symptoms of children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 20(4), 182–194. CrossRef Kallapiran, K., Koo, S., Kirubakaran, R., & Hancock, K. (2015). Review: Effectiveness of mindfulness in improving mental health symptoms of children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 20(4), 182–194. CrossRef
go back to reference Kassel, J. D., Jackson, S. I., & Unrod, M. (2000). Generalized expectations for negative mood regulation and problem drinking among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 61, 332–340. PubMedCrossRef Kassel, J. D., Jackson, S. I., & Unrod, M. (2000). Generalized expectations for negative mood regulation and problem drinking among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 61, 332–340. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Katz, D., & Toner, B. (2013). A systematic review of gender differences in the effectiveness of mindfulness-based treatments for substance use disorders. Mindfulness, 4(4), 318–331. CrossRef Katz, D., & Toner, B. (2013). A systematic review of gender differences in the effectiveness of mindfulness-based treatments for substance use disorders. Mindfulness, 4(4), 318–331. CrossRef
go back to reference Kendall, P. C., & Williams, C. L. (1982). Assessing the cognitive and behavioral components of children’s self-management. In P. Karoly & F. H. Kanfer (Eds.), Self-management and behavior change (pp. 240–284). New York, NY: Pergamon.   Kendall, P. C., & Williams, C. L. (1982). Assessing the cognitive and behavioral components of children’s self-management. In P. Karoly & F. H. Kanfer (Eds.), Self-management and behavior change (pp. 240–284). New York, NY: Pergamon.  
go back to reference Khalsa, S. B., Hickey-Schultz, L., Cohen, D., Steiner, N., & Cope, S. (2012). Evaluation of the mental health benefits of yoga in a secondary school: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 39(1), 80–90. doi: 10.​1007/​s11414-011-9249-8. CrossRef Khalsa, S. B., Hickey-Schultz, L., Cohen, D., Steiner, N., & Cope, S. (2012). Evaluation of the mental health benefits of yoga in a secondary school: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 39(1), 80–90. doi: 10.​1007/​s11414-011-9249-8. CrossRef
go back to reference Khanna, S., & Greeson, J. M. (2013). A narrative review of yoga and mindfulness as complementary therapies for addiction. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 21(3), 244–252. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Khanna, S., & Greeson, J. M. (2013). A narrative review of yoga and mindfulness as complementary therapies for addiction. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 21(3), 244–252. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference King, S. M., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2004). Childhood externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in the prediction of the early substance use. Addiction, 99, 1548–1559. PubMedCrossRef King, S. M., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2004). Childhood externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in the prediction of the early substance use. Addiction, 99, 1548–1559. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Kissen, M., & Kissen-Kohn, D. A. (2009). Reducing addictions via the self-soothing effects of yoga. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 73(1), 34. PubMedCrossRef Kissen, M., & Kissen-Kohn, D. A. (2009). Reducing addictions via the self-soothing effects of yoga. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 73(1), 34. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Locascio, J. J., & Atri, A. (2011). An overview of longitudinal data analysis methods for neurological research. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 1(1), 330–357. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Locascio, J. J., & Atri, A. (2011). An overview of longitudinal data analysis methods for neurological research. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, 1(1), 330–357. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Lohman, R. (1999). Yoga techniques applicable within drug and alcohol rehabilitation programmes. Therapeutic Communities-London-Association of Therapeutic Communiities, 20, 61–72. Lohman, R. (1999). Yoga techniques applicable within drug and alcohol rehabilitation programmes. Therapeutic Communities-London-Association of Therapeutic Communiities, 20, 61–72.
go back to reference LoRusso, A. M., Butzer, B., Windsor, R., Riley, F., Frame, K., Khalsa, S. B. S., et al. (2015). A qualitative examination of yoga for middle school adolescents. Manuscript submitted for publication. LoRusso, A. M., Butzer, B., Windsor, R., Riley, F., Frame, K., Khalsa, S. B. S., et al. (2015). A qualitative examination of yoga for middle school adolescents. Manuscript submitted for publication.
go back to reference Lynam, D., Smith, G., Whiteside, S., & Cyders, M. (2006). The UPPS-P: Assessing five personality pathways to impulsive behavior. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University. Lynam, D., Smith, G., Whiteside, S., & Cyders, M. (2006). The UPPS-P: Assessing five personality pathways to impulsive behavior. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University.
go back to reference Mendelson, T., Dariotis, J. K., Gould, L. F., Smith, A. S., Smith, A. A., Gonzalez, A. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2013). Implementing mindfulness and yoga in urban schools: A community-academic partnership. Journal of Children’s Services, 8(4), 276–291. CrossRef Mendelson, T., Dariotis, J. K., Gould, L. F., Smith, A. S., Smith, A. A., Gonzalez, A. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2013). Implementing mindfulness and yoga in urban schools: A community-academic partnership. Journal of Children’s Services, 8(4), 276–291. CrossRef
go back to reference Miller, S., Herman-Stahl, M., Fishbein, D., Lavery, B., Johnson, M., & Markovits, L. (2014). Use of formative research to develop a yoga curriculum for high-risk youth: Implementation considerations. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 7(3), 171–183. doi: 10.​1080/​1754730X.​2014.​916496. CrossRef Miller, S., Herman-Stahl, M., Fishbein, D., Lavery, B., Johnson, M., & Markovits, L. (2014). Use of formative research to develop a yoga curriculum for high-risk youth: Implementation considerations. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 7(3), 171–183. doi: 10.​1080/​1754730X.​2014.​916496. CrossRef
go back to reference Moss, H. B., Chen, C. M., & Yi, H. Y. (2014). Early adolescent patterns of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana polysubstance use and young adult substance use outcomes in a nationally representative sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 136, 51–62. PubMedCrossRef Moss, H. B., Chen, C. M., & Yi, H. Y. (2014). Early adolescent patterns of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana polysubstance use and young adult substance use outcomes in a nationally representative sample. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 136, 51–62. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Noggle, J. J., Steiner, N. J., Minami, T., & Khalsa, S. B. (2012). Benefits of yoga for psychosocial well-being in a US high school curriculum: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics : JDBP, 33(3), 193–201. doi: 10.​1097/​DBP.​0b013e31824afdc4​. PubMedCrossRef Noggle, J. J., Steiner, N. J., Minami, T., & Khalsa, S. B. (2012). Benefits of yoga for psychosocial well-being in a US high school curriculum: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics : JDBP, 33(3), 193–201. doi: 10.​1097/​DBP.​0b013e31824afdc4​. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference O’Connell, M. E., Boat, T., & Warner, K. E. (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. Washington, USA: National Academies Press. O’Connell, M. E., Boat, T., & Warner, K. E. (2009). Preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people: Progress and possibilities. Washington, USA: National Academies Press.
go back to reference Pentz, M. A. (2014). Integrating mindfulness into school-based substance use and other prevention programs. Substance Use and Misuse, 49(5), 617–619. PubMedCrossRef Pentz, M. A. (2014). Integrating mindfulness into school-based substance use and other prevention programs. Substance Use and Misuse, 49(5), 617–619. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Purohit, S. P., Pradhan, B., & Nagendra, H. R. (2016). Effect of yoga on EUROFIT physical fitness parameters on adolescents dwelling in an orphan home: A randomized control study. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 11(1), 33–46. CrossRef Purohit, S. P., Pradhan, B., & Nagendra, H. R. (2016). Effect of yoga on EUROFIT physical fitness parameters on adolescents dwelling in an orphan home: A randomized control study. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 11(1), 33–46. CrossRef
go back to reference Razza, R. A., Bergen-Cico, D., & Raymond, K. (2015). Enhancing preschoolers’ self-regulation via mindful yoga. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(2), 372–385. CrossRef Razza, R. A., Bergen-Cico, D., & Raymond, K. (2015). Enhancing preschoolers’ self-regulation via mindful yoga. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(2), 372–385. CrossRef
go back to reference Reddy, S., Dick, A. M., Gerber, M. R., & Mitchell, K. (2014). The effect of a yoga intervention on alcohol and drug abuse risk in veteran and civilian women with posttraumatic stress disorder. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 20(10), 750–756. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Reddy, S., Dick, A. M., Gerber, M. R., & Mitchell, K. (2014). The effect of a yoga intervention on alcohol and drug abuse risk in veteran and civilian women with posttraumatic stress disorder. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 20(10), 750–756. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Ross, A., & Thomas, S. (2010). The health benefits of yoga and exercise: A review of comparison studies. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16(1), 3–12. PubMedCrossRef Ross, A., & Thomas, S. (2010). The health benefits of yoga and exercise: A review of comparison studies. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 16(1), 3–12. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Sale, E., Weil, V., & Kryah, R. (2012). An exploratory investigation of the promoting responsibility through education and prevention (PREP) after school program for African American at-risk elementary school students. School Social Work Journal, 36(2), 56–72. Sale, E., Weil, V., & Kryah, R. (2012). An exploratory investigation of the promoting responsibility through education and prevention (PREP) after school program for African American at-risk elementary school students. School Social Work Journal, 36(2), 56–72.
go back to reference Schulenberg, J., Patrick, M. E., Maslowsky, J., & Maggs, J. L. (2014). The epidemiology and etiology of adolescent substance use in developmental perspective. In M. Lewis & K. D. Rudolph (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 601–620). New York: Springer. CrossRef Schulenberg, J., Patrick, M. E., Maslowsky, J., & Maggs, J. L. (2014). The epidemiology and etiology of adolescent substance use in developmental perspective. In M. Lewis & K. D. Rudolph (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 601–620). New York: Springer. CrossRef
go back to reference Serwacki, M. L., & Cook-Cottone, C. (2012). Yoga in the schools: A systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 22, 101–109. Serwacki, M. L., & Cook-Cottone, C. (2012). Yoga in the schools: A systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 22, 101–109.
go back to reference Sharma, M. (2014). Yoga as an alternative and complementary approach for stress management: A systematic review. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 19, 59–67. CrossRef Sharma, M. (2014). Yoga as an alternative and complementary approach for stress management: A systematic review. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 19, 59–67. CrossRef
go back to reference Sibinga, E. M., Perry-Parrish, C., Thorpe, K., Mika, M., & Ellen, J. M. (2014). A small mixed-method RCT of mindfulness instruction for urban youth. EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing, 10(3), 180–186. CrossRef Sibinga, E. M., Perry-Parrish, C., Thorpe, K., Mika, M., & Ellen, J. M. (2014). A small mixed-method RCT of mindfulness instruction for urban youth. EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing, 10(3), 180–186. CrossRef
go back to reference Simons, J. S., Carey, K. B., & Gaher, R. M. (2004). Lability and impulsivity synergistically increase risk for alcohol-related problems. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 30(3), 685–694. PubMedCrossRef Simons, J. S., Carey, K. B., & Gaher, R. M. (2004). Lability and impulsivity synergistically increase risk for alcohol-related problems. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 30(3), 685–694. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Skiba, D., Monroe, J., & Wodarski, J. S. (2004). Adolescent substance use: Reviewing the effectiveness of prevention strategies. Social Work, 49(3), 343–353. PubMedCrossRef Skiba, D., Monroe, J., & Wodarski, J. S. (2004). Adolescent substance use: Reviewing the effectiveness of prevention strategies. Social Work, 49(3), 343–353. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Smith, R. A., Levine, T. R., Lachlan, K. A., & Fediuk, T. A. (2002). The high cost of complexity in experimental design and data analysis: Type I and type II error rates in multiway ANOVA. Human Communication Research, 28(4), 515–530. CrossRef Smith, R. A., Levine, T. R., Lachlan, K. A., & Fediuk, T. A. (2002). The high cost of complexity in experimental design and data analysis: Type I and type II error rates in multiway ANOVA. Human Communication Research, 28(4), 515–530. CrossRef
go back to reference Southam-Gerow, M. A. (2013). Emotion regulation in children and adolescents: A practitioner’s guide. New York: Guilford. Southam-Gerow, M. A. (2013). Emotion regulation in children and adolescents: A practitioner’s guide. New York: Guilford.
go back to reference Sproull, N. L. (2002). Handbook of research methods: A guide for practitioners and students in the social sciences. Lanham, MA: Scarecrow Press. Sproull, N. L. (2002). Handbook of research methods: A guide for practitioners and students in the social sciences. Lanham, MA: Scarecrow Press.
go back to reference Steinberg, L. (2015). The neural underpinnings of adolescent risk-taking: The roles of reward-seeking, impulse control, and peers. In G. Oettingen & P. M. Gollwitzer (Eds.), Self-regulation in adolescence (pp. 173–192). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef Steinberg, L. (2015). The neural underpinnings of adolescent risk-taking: The roles of reward-seeking, impulse control, and peers. In G. Oettingen & P. M. Gollwitzer (Eds.), Self-regulation in adolescence (pp. 173–192). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
go back to reference Strahan, R. F. (1982). Multivariate analysis and the problem of type I error. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(2), 175–179. CrossRef Strahan, R. F. (1982). Multivariate analysis and the problem of type I error. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(2), 175–179. CrossRef
go back to reference Sureka, P., Govil, S., Dash, D., Dash, C., Kumar, M., & Singhal, V. (2014). Sudarshan kriya for male patients with psycho active substance dependence: A randomized control trial. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 16(1), 28–37. Sureka, P., Govil, S., Dash, D., Dash, C., Kumar, M., & Singhal, V. (2014). Sudarshan kriya for male patients with psycho active substance dependence: A randomized control trial. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 16(1), 28–37.
go back to reference Sussman, S., Dent, C. W., & Lichtman, K. L. (2001). Project EX: Outcomes of a teen smoking cessation program. Addictive Behaviors, 26(3), 425–438. PubMedCrossRef Sussman, S., Dent, C. W., & Lichtman, K. L. (2001). Project EX: Outcomes of a teen smoking cessation program. Addictive Behaviors, 26(3), 425–438. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Telles, S., Singh, N., Bhardwaj, A. K., Kumar, A., & Balkrishna, A. (2013). Effect of yoga or physical exercise on physical, cognitive and emotional measures in children: a randomized controlled trial. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health, 7(1), 37. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Telles, S., Singh, N., Bhardwaj, A. K., Kumar, A., & Balkrishna, A. (2013). Effect of yoga or physical exercise on physical, cognitive and emotional measures in children: a randomized controlled trial. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health, 7(1), 37. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Tercek, R. C. (2008). Impulsivity: Examining links to risk- taking behavior among adolescent detainees. ProQuest. Tercek, R. C. (2008). Impulsivity: Examining links to risk- taking behavior among adolescent detainees. ProQuest.
go back to reference Wang, D., & Hagins, M. (2016). Perceived benefits of yoga among urban school students: A qualitative analysis. Evidence- Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016. Article ID 8725654. doi: 10.​1155/​2016/​8725654 Wang, D., & Hagins, M. (2016). Perceived benefits of yoga among urban school students: A qualitative analysis. Evidence- Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016. Article ID 8725654. doi: 10.​1155/​2016/​8725654
go back to reference Warner, R. M. (2008). Applied statistics: From bivariate through multivariate techniques. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Warner, R. M. (2008). Applied statistics: From bivariate through multivariate techniques. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
go back to reference Whitesell, M., Bachand, A., Peel, J., & Brown, M. (2013). Familial, social, and individual factors contributing to risk for adolescent substance use. Journal of addiction, 2013, Article ID 579310. doi: 10.​1155/​2013/​579310 Whitesell, M., Bachand, A., Peel, J., & Brown, M. (2013). Familial, social, and individual factors contributing to risk for adolescent substance use. Journal of addiction, 2013, Article ID 579310. doi: 10.​1155/​2013/​579310
go back to reference Wills, T. A. (1986). Stress and coping in early adolescence: Relationships to substance use in urban school samples. Health Psychology, 5(6), 503. PubMedCrossRef Wills, T. A. (1986). Stress and coping in early adolescence: Relationships to substance use in urban school samples. Health Psychology, 5(6), 503. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wills, T. A., & Ainette, M. G. (2010). Temperament, self-control and adolescent substance use. In L. M. Scheier (ed.), Handbook of Drug Use Etiology: Theory, Methods and Empirical Findings (pp. 127–146). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.   Wills, T. A., & Ainette, M. G. (2010). Temperament, self-control and adolescent substance use. In L. M. Scheier (ed.), Handbook of Drug Use Etiology: Theory, Methods and Empirical Findings (pp. 127–146). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.  
go back to reference Wills, T. A., Ainette, M. G., Mendoza, D., Gibbons, F. X., & Brody, G. H. (2007). Self-control, symptomatology, and substance use precursors: Test of a theoretical model in a community sample of 9-year-old children. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 21(2), 205. PubMedCrossRef Wills, T. A., Ainette, M. G., Mendoza, D., Gibbons, F. X., & Brody, G. H. (2007). Self-control, symptomatology, and substance use precursors: Test of a theoretical model in a community sample of 9-year-old children. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 21(2), 205. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wills, T. A., & Dishion, T. J. (2004). Temperament and adolescent substance use: A transactional analysis of emerging self-control. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(1), 69–81. PubMedCrossRef Wills, T. A., & Dishion, T. J. (2004). Temperament and adolescent substance use: A transactional analysis of emerging self-control. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(1), 69–81. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wills, T. A., Gibbons, F. X., Sargent, J. D., Gerrard, M., Lee, H. R., & Dal, C. S. (2010). Good self-control moderates the effect of mass media on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use: Tests with studies of children and adolescents. Health Psychology, 29(5), 539–549. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Wills, T. A., Gibbons, F. X., Sargent, J. D., Gerrard, M., Lee, H. R., & Dal, C. S. (2010). Good self-control moderates the effect of mass media on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use: Tests with studies of children and adolescents. Health Psychology, 29(5), 539–549. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Wills, T. A., Sandy, J. M., & Yaeger, A. M. (2001). Time perspective and early-onset substance use: A model based on stress–coping theory. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15(2), 118. PubMedCrossRef Wills, T. A., Sandy, J. M., & Yaeger, A. M. (2001). Time perspective and early-onset substance use: A model based on stress–coping theory. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15(2), 118. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wills, T. A., Simons, J. S., & Gibbons, F. X. (2015). Self-control and substance use prevention: A translational analysis. In L. M. Scheier (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent drug use prevention: Research, intervention strategies, and practice (pp. 121–139). Washington, USA: American Psychological Association. CrossRef Wills, T. A., Simons, J. S., & Gibbons, F. X. (2015). Self-control and substance use prevention: A translational analysis. In L. M. Scheier (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent drug use prevention: Research, intervention strategies, and practice (pp. 121–139). Washington, USA: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
go back to reference Wills, T. A., Walker, C., Mendoza, D., & Ainette, M. G. (2006). Behavioral and emotional self-control: Relations to substance use in samples of middle and high school students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20(3), 265–278. PubMedCrossRef Wills, T. A., Walker, C., Mendoza, D., & Ainette, M. G. (2006). Behavioral and emotional self-control: Relations to substance use in samples of middle and high school students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20(3), 265–278. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Wittenauer, J., Ascher, M., Briggie, A., Kreiter, A., & Chavez, J. (2015). The role of complementary and alternative medicine in adolescent substance use disorders. Adolescent Psychiatry, 5(2), 96–104. CrossRef Wittenauer, J., Ascher, M., Briggie, A., Kreiter, A., & Chavez, J. (2015). The role of complementary and alternative medicine in adolescent substance use disorders. Adolescent Psychiatry, 5(2), 96–104. CrossRef
go back to reference Zahn-Waxler, C., Shirtcliff, E. A., & Marceau, K. (2008). Disorders of childhood and adolescence: Gender and psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 275–303. PubMedCrossRef Zahn-Waxler, C., Shirtcliff, E. A., & Marceau, K. (2008). Disorders of childhood and adolescence: Gender and psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 275–303. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Zeman, J., Shipman, K., & Penza-Clyve, S. (2001). Development and initial validation of the children’s sadness management scale. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 25(3), 187–205. CrossRef Zeman, J., Shipman, K., & Penza-Clyve, S. (2001). Development and initial validation of the children’s sadness management scale. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 25(3), 187–205. CrossRef
go back to reference Zeman, J., Shipman, K., & Suveg, C. (2002). Anger and sadness regulation: Predictions to internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31(3), 393–398. PubMedCrossRef Zeman, J., Shipman, K., & Suveg, C. (2002). Anger and sadness regulation: Predictions to internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31(3), 393–398. PubMedCrossRef
go back to reference Zgierska, A., Rabago, D., Chawla, N., Kushner, K., Koehler, R., & Marlatt, A. (2009). Mindfulness meditation for substance use disorders: A systematic review. Substance Abuse, 30(4), 266–294. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Zgierska, A., Rabago, D., Chawla, N., Kushner, K., Koehler, R., & Marlatt, A. (2009). Mindfulness meditation for substance use disorders: A systematic review. Substance Abuse, 30(4), 266–294. PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
go back to reference Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1271. CrossRef Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1271. CrossRef
go back to reference Zoogman, S., Goldberg, S. B., Hoyt, W. T., & Miller, L. (2015). Mindfulness interventions with youth: A meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 6(2), 290–302. CrossRef Zoogman, S., Goldberg, S. B., Hoyt, W. T., & Miller, L. (2015). Mindfulness interventions with youth: A meta-analysis. Mindfulness, 6(2), 290–302. CrossRef
Metagegevens
Titel
Evaluation of Yoga for Preventing Adolescent Substance Use Risk Factors in a Middle School Setting: A Preliminary Group-Randomized Controlled Trial
Auteurs
Bethany Butzer
Amanda LoRusso
Sunny H. Shin
Sat Bir S. Khalsa
Publicatiedatum
31-05-2016
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Youth and Adolescence / Uitgave 3/2017
Print ISSN: 0047-2891
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-6601
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0513-3

Andere artikelen Uitgave 3/2017

Journal of Youth and Adolescence 3/2017 Naar de uitgave