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07-06-2017 | Uitgave 11/2017

Quality of Life Research 11/2017

Establishing benchmark EQ-5D-3L population health state utilities and identifying their correlates in Gansu Province, China

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 11/2017
Lei Si, Lei Shi, Mingsheng Chen, Andrew J. Palmer
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s11136-017-1614-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Lei Si and Lei Shi have contributed equally to this work.



Despite a flurry of cost utility analyses conducted in the Chinese population in recent years, a standard set of health state utilities (HSUs) for the Chinese population is lacking. The aims of this study were to (1) determine benchmark age- and sex-specific HSUs for a Chinese population, and (2) assess key correlates of HSUs in this population.


Quality-of-life was evaluated using the validated EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. HSUs were calculated using data collected from Gansu Province (n = 9833). Overall differences in HSUs were analysed using linear regression and a two-tailed p value <0.05 was determined to be statistically significant. The minimal difference in weighted index was set at 0.074.


HSUs decreased with age in both males and females. Living in the non-capital areas, being separated/divorced/widowed or never married, being never educated, diagnosed with chronic disease, and no regular physical activity were associated with lower HSUs. HSUs for women were lower than for men in univariate regression analysis; however, no differences were found after adjusting for other covariates. In addition, the difference in HSU reached the level of minimal difference in weighted index for participants with chronic disease. HSUs for those who were diagnosed with chronic disease were 0.098 (0.092–0.104) lower than those without chronic disease.


This study reports HSUs for a Chinese population in Gansu and investigates the key correlates of HSUs in this population. In addition, the use of EQ-5D-3L in assessing population health is limited given the high ceiling effect and skewed HSUs.

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