Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Middle school students’ experiences at after-school programs were compared as they participated in different types of activities and with different social partners. The students (N = 165) attended eight programs in three Midwestern states. A total of 1,596 experiences were randomly sampled using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) during 1 week in the fall of 2001 and 1 week in the spring of 2002. Student engagement was conceptualized as the simultaneous experience of concentration, interest, and enjoyment. Students reported high levels of engagement while participating in sports activities and arts enrichment activities at the after-school programs, and low levels of engagement while completing homework at programs. They reported being more engaged in activities involving both adults and peers than activities with peers only. Concentrated effort, intrinsic motivation, and positive and negative mood states were also compared by program activities and social partners. Findings about participants’ subjective experiences and engagement in specific program activities have implications for understanding after-school programs as a context for youth development.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Beck, E. L. (1999). Prevention and intervention programming: Lessons from an after-school program. Urban Review, 31, 107–124. CrossRef
Bempechat, J. (2004). The motivational benefits of homework: A social-cognitive perspective. Theory into Practice, 43(3), 189–196. CrossRef
Broh, B. A. (2002). Linking extracurricular programming to academic achievement: Who benefits and why? Sociology of Education, 75, 69–95. CrossRef
Bryk, A. S., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Burton, J. M., Horowitz, R., & Abeles, H. (2000). Learning in and through the arts: The question of transfer. Studies in Art Education, 41, 228–257. CrossRef
Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155–159. CrossRef
Cooper, H. (1989). Homework. White Plains, NY: Longman.
Cooper, H., Lindsay, J. J., Nye, B., & Greathouse, S. (1998). Relationships among attitudes about homework, amount of homework assigned and completed, and student achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 70–83. CrossRef
Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Patall, E. A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, 1987–2003. Review of Educational Research, 76, 1–62. CrossRef
Cooper, H., Valentine, J. C., Nye, B., & Lindsay, J. J. (1999). Relationships between five after-school activities and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(2), 369–378. CrossRef
Cosden, M., Morrison, G., Albanese, A. L., & Macias, S. (2001). When homework is not home work: After-school programs for homework assistance. Educational Psychologist, 36, 211–221. CrossRef
Coutts, P. M. (2004). Meanings of homework and implications for practice. Theory into Practice, 43(3), 182–188. CrossRef
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: HarperPerennial.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: HarperCollins.
Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Kleiber, D. A. (1991). Leisure and self-actualization. In B. L. Driver, P. J. Brown, & G. L. Peterson (Eds.), Benefits of leisure (pp. 91–102). State College, PA: Venture.
Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Larson, R. (1984). Being adolescent: Conflict and growth in the teenage years. New York: Basic Books.
Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Larson, R. (1987). Validity and reliability of the experience-sampling method. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 175, 525–536.
Csikszentmihalyi, M., Rathunde, K., & Whalen, S. (1993). Talented teenagers: The roots of success and failure. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Eccles, J. S., & Barber, B. L. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band: What kind of extracurricular involvement matters? Journal of Adolescent Research, 14(1), 10–43. CrossRef
Eccles, J. S., & Gootman, J. A. (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington DC: National Academy Press.
Fredricks, J. A., Alfred-Liro, C. J., Hruda, L. Z., Eccles, J. S., Patrick, H., & Ruan, A. M. (2002). A qualitative exploration of adolescents’ commitment to athletics and the arts. Journal of Adolescent Research, 17, 68–97. CrossRef
Gould, D., Feltz, D. L., Horn, T., & Weiss, M. (1982). Reasons for discontinuing involvement in competitive youth swimming. Journal of Sports Behavior, 5, 155–165.
Hektner, J., Schmidt, J. A., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2007). Experience sampling method: Measuring the quality of everyday life. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Jordan, W. J. (1999). Black high school students’ participation in school-sponsored sports activities: Effects on school engagement and achievement. Journal of Negro Education, 68, 54–71. CrossRef
Kirshnit, C. E., Ham, M., & Richards, M. H. (1989). The sporting life: Athletic activities during early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 18, 601–615. CrossRef
Lamborn, S. D., Brown, B. B., Mounts, N. S., & Steinberg, L. (1992). Putting school in perspective: The influence of family, peers, extracurricular participation, and part-time work on academic engagement. In F. M. Newmann (Ed.), Student engagement and achievement in American secondary schools (pp. 153–181). New York: Teachers College Press.
Larson, R. W., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1983). The experience sampling method. New Directions for Methodology of Social & Behavioral Science, 15, 41–56.
Larson, R. W., & Kleiber, D. (1993). Daily experience of adolescents. In P. H. Tolan & B. J. Cohler (Eds.), Handbook of clinical research and practice with adolescents (pp. 125–145). New York: Wiley.
Larson, R., & Richards, M. H. (1994). Divergent realities: The emotional lives of mothers, fathers, and adolescents. New York: Basic Books.
Leone, C. M., & Richards, M. H. (1989). Classwork and homework in early adolescence: The ecology of achievement. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 18, 531–548. CrossRef
Mahoney, J. L., Larson, R. W., & Eccles, J. S. (Eds.). (2005). Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Mahoney, J. L., Larson, R. W., Eccles, J. S., & Lord, H. (2005). Organized activities as development contexts for children and adolescents. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson, & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 3–22). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Marsh, H. W. (1992). Extracurricular activities: Beneficial extension of the traditional curriculum or subversion of academic goals? Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 553–562. CrossRef
Marsh, H. W., & Kleitman, S. (2002). Extracurricular school activities: The good, the bad, and the nonlinear. Harvard Educational Review, 72, 464–514.
McLaughlin, M. W., Irby, M. A., & Langman, J. (1994). Urban sanctuaries: Neighborhood organizations in the lives and futures of inner-city youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Miller, B. M. (2003). Critical hours: After-school programs and educational success. Retrieved 6/14/06 from http://www.nmefdn.org/CriticalHours.htm.
National Center for Health Statistics (2005). Prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents: United States, 1999–2002. Retrieved 06/21/06 from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/overwight99.htm.
Noam G. G. (Ed.). (2004). New directions for youth development: After school worlds: Creating a new social space for development and learning (Vol. 101). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Rathunde, K., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2005). Middle school students’ motivation and quality of experience: A comparison of montessori and traditional school environments. American Journal of Education, 111, 341.
Shernoff, D. J., Csikszentmihalyi, M., Schneider, B., & Shernoff, E. S. (2003). Student engagement in high school classrooms from the perspective of flow theory. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(2), 158–176. CrossRef
Smoll, F. L., & Smith, R. E. (Eds.). (2002). Children and youth in sport: A biopsychological perspective. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary. (2003). When schools stay open late: The national evaluation of the 21st century learning centers program, first year findings. Washington, DC.
Vandell, D. L., Pierce, K. M., & Dadisman, K. (2005). Out-of-school settings as a developmental context for children and youth. In R. V. Kail (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 33, pp. 43–77). New York: Academic.
Wankel, L. M., & Kreisel, P. S. J. (1985). Factors underlying enjoyment of youth sports: Sports and age group comparisons. Journal of Sports Psychology, 7, 51–64.
Warton, P. M. (2001). The forgotten voices in homework: Views of students. Educational Psychologist, 36, 155–165. CrossRef
Winner, E., & Hetland, L. (2000). The arts in education: Evaluating the evidence for a causal link. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34, 3–10. CrossRef
- Engagement in after-school program activities: quality of experience from the perspective of participants
David Jordan Shernoff
Deborah Lowe Vandell
- Springer US