Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
A significant literature suggests that youth diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for later depression relative to youth without ADHD. Youth with co-occurring ADHD and depression experience more serious impairments and worse developmental outcomes than those with either disorder alone, including increased rates of suicidal ideation and suicide completion. Despite these very serious outcomes, few studies have examined the mechanisms underlying the relationship between ADHD and depression in youth. The present study examined emotion regulation (ER) as a mediator of the relationship between ADHD and depressive symptoms in 69 youth between the ages of 10 and 14, with (n = 37) and without (n = 32) ADHD. Parent and youth ratings of depressive symptoms and ER were collected. Youth with ADHD reported significantly more depressive symptoms and poorer ER ability relative to youth without ADHD. ER fully mediated the relationship between ADHD and depressive symptoms. Limitations and clinical implications are discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Ambrosini, P. J. (2000). Historical development and present status of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children (K-SADS). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 49–58. CrossRef
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental (4th edition, text-revised). Washington, DC: Author.
Biederman, J., Ball, S., Monuteaux, M., Mick, E., Spencer, T., McCreary, M., et al. (2008). New insights into the comorbidity between ADHD and major depression in adolescent and young adult females. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(4), 426–434. CrossRef
Bloch, L., Moran, E. K., & Kring, A. M. (2009). On the need for conceptual and definitional clarity in emotion regulation research. In A. M. Kring & D. S. Sloan (Eds.), Emotion regulation and psychopathology (pp. 88–104). New York: Guilford.
Bussing, R., Mason, D. M., Bell, L., Porter, P., & Garvan, C. (2010). Adolescent outcomes of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a diverse community sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(6), 595–605.
Chronis, A. M., Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Kipp, H., Baumann, B., & Lee, S. S. (2003). Psychopathology and substance abuse in parents of young children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1425–1432. CrossRef
Chronis-Tuscano, A., Molina, B. G., Pelham, W. E., Applegate, B., Dahlke, A., Overmyer, M., & Lahey, B. B. (2010). Very early predictors of adolescent depression and suicide attempts in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(10), 1044–1051. PubMedCrossRef
Claude, D., & Firestone, P. (1995). The development of ADHD boys: a 12-year follow-up. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 27(2), 226–249. CrossRef
Compas, B. E., Jaser, S. S., & Benson, M. (2009). Coping and emotion regulation: Implications for understanding depression during adolescence. In S. Nolen-Hoeksema & L. Hilt (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent depression. New York: Wiley.
Costello, E., Foley, D., & Angold, A. (2006). 10-year research update review: the epidemiology of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders: II. Developmental epidemiology. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(1), 8–25. CrossRef
DuPaul, G. J., Volpe, R. J., Jitendra, A. K., et al. (2004). Elementary school students with AD/HD: predictors of academic achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 42, 285–301. CrossRef
Durbin, C., & Shafir, D. (2008). Emotion regulation and risk for depression. In J. R. Z. Abela & H. L. Hankin (Eds.), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (pp. 149–176). New York: Guilford.
Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Waschbusch, D., Gnagy, E. M., Lahey, B. B., Chronis, A. M., Onyango, A. N., Kipp, H., Lopez-Williams, A., & Burrows-MacLean, L. (2006). A practical impairment measure: psychometric properties of the impairment rating scale in three samples of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 369–385. PubMedCrossRef
Field, A. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS—2nd edition. London: Sage Publications.
Gotlieb, I. H., & Hammen, C. L. (2008). Handbook of depression—2nd Edition. New York: The Guilford Press.
Gratz, K., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26(1), 41–54. CrossRef
Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 3–24). New York: Guilford.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis—6th Edition. New Jersey: Pearson-Prentice Hill.
Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: statistical mediation analyses in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76, 408–420. CrossRef
Hinshaw, S. E. (1994). Attention deficits and hyperactivity in children. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Jensen, P. S., Rubio-Stipec, M., Canino, G., Bird, H. R., Dulcan, M. K., Schwab-Stone, M. E., et al. (1999). Parent and child contributions to diagnosis of mental disorder: are both informants always necessary? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 1569–1579. PubMedCrossRef
Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 141–151. CrossRef
Karustis, J. L., Power, T. J., Rescorla, L. A., Eiraldi, R. B., & Gallagher, P. R. (2000). Anxiety and depression in children with ADHD: unique associations with academic and social functioning. Journal of Attention Disorders, 4, 133–149. CrossRef
Kaufman, J., Birmaher, B., Brent, D., Rao, U., & Ryan, N. (1997). Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 980–988. CrossRef
Kovacs, M. (1992). Children’s Depression Inventory manual. North Tonawanda: Multi-Health Systems.
Kovacs, M., Sherrill, J., George, C., Pollock, M., Tumuluru, R., & Ho, V. (2006). Contextual emotion-regulation therapy for childhood depression: description and pilot testing of a new intervention. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(8), 892–903. CrossRef
Mannuzza, S., Klein, R., Bessler, A., Malloy, P., & LaPadula, M. (1998). Adult psychiatric status of hyperactive boys grown up. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(4), 493–498. PubMed
Martel, M. M. (2009). A new perspective on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: emotion dysregulation and trait models. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 50(9), 1042–1051. CrossRef
Martel, M. M., & Nigg, J. T. (2009). Child ADHD and personality/temperament traits of reactive an effortful control, resiliency and emotionality. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(11), 1437–1444.
Martinussen, R., Hayden, J., Hogg-Johnson, S., & Tannock, R. (2005). A meta-analysis of working memory impairments in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(4), 377–384. CrossRef
Moretti, M. M., Fine, S., Haley, G., & Marriage, K. (1985). Childhood and adolescent depression: child—report versus parent report information. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(3), 298–302. CrossRef
Nigg, J. T., & Casey, B. J. (2005). An integrative theory of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder based on the cognitive and affective neurosciences. Developmental Psychopathology, 17(3), 785–806. CrossRef
Norvilitis, J., Casey, R., Brooklier, K., & Bonello, P. (2000). Emotion appraisal in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their parents. Journal of Attention Disorders, 4(1), 15–26. CrossRef
Paus, T., Keshavan, M., & Giedd, J. N. (2008). Why do many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence? Nature reviews Neuroscience, 9, 947–957. PubMed
Pelham, W. E., Fabiano, G. A., & Massetti, G. M. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34(3), 548–58. CrossRef
Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). Behavior assessment system for children, second edition (BASC-2). Circle Pines: American Guidance Service.
Rothbart, M. K., & Posner, M. I. (2006). Temperament, attention, and developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology. Vol. 2: Developmental neuroscience (pp. 465–501). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Scime, M., & Norvilitis, J. (2006). Task performance and response to frustration in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 43(3), 377–386. CrossRef
Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler intelligence scale for children—third edition: Manual. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.
- Emotion Regulation Mediates the Relationship between ADHD and Depressive Symptoms in Youth
Karen E. Seymour
- Springer US