Skip to main content
main-content
Top

Tip

Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 6/2015

01-06-2015 | Original Paper

Emotion Recognition in Animated Compared to Human Stimuli in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Auteurs: Mark Brosnan, Hilary Johnson, Beate Grawmeyer, Emma Chapman, Laura Benton

Gepubliceerd in: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Uitgave 6/2015

Log in om toegang te krijgen
share
DELEN

Deel dit onderdeel of sectie (kopieer de link)

  • Optie A:
    Klik op de rechtermuisknop op de link en selecteer de optie “linkadres kopiëren”
  • Optie B:
    Deel de link per e-mail

Abstract

There is equivocal evidence as to whether there is a deficit in recognising emotional expressions in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study compared emotion recognition in ASD in three types of emotion expression media (still image, dynamic image, auditory) across human stimuli (e.g. photo of a human face) and animated stimuli (e.g. cartoon face). Participants were 37 adolescents (age 11–16) with a diagnosis of ASD (33 male, 4 female). 42 males and 39 females served as typically developing, age-matched controls. Overall there was significant advantage for control groups over the ASD group for emotion recognition in human stimuli but not animated stimuli, across modalities. For static animated images specifically, those with ASD significantly outperformed controls. The findings are consistent with the ASD group using atypical explicit strategies.
Voetnoten
1
We use the term ‘animated’ rather than ‘cartoon’ as it better describes both the visual and auditory conditions, but does not imply that the stimuli move. We use the term ‘dynamic’ to indicate movement.
 
Literatuur
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2000). The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington: Authors. CrossRef American Psychiatric Association. (2000). The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington: Authors. CrossRef
go back to reference American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. CrossRef American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. CrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (2002). The extreme male brain theory of autism. Trends in Cognitive Science, 6, 248–254. CrossRef Baron-Cohen, S. (2002). The extreme male brain theory of autism. Trends in Cognitive Science, 6, 248–254. CrossRef
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S. (2009). Autism: The empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1156, 68–80. CrossRefPubMed Baron-Cohen, S. (2009). Autism: The empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1156, 68–80. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2004). The empathy quotient: An investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 163–175. CrossRefPubMed Baron-Cohen, S., & Wheelwright, S. (2004). The empathy quotient: An investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 163–175. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 5–17. CrossRefPubMed Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 5–17. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brosnan, M., Chapman, E., & Ashwin, C. (2014a). Adolescents with Autism spectrum disorder show a circumspect reasoning bias rather than ‘jumping-to-conclusions’. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 513–520. CrossRefPubMed Brosnan, M., Chapman, E., & Ashwin, C. (2014a). Adolescents with Autism spectrum disorder show a circumspect reasoning bias rather than ‘jumping-to-conclusions’. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 513–520. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Brosnan, M., Hollinworth, M., Antoniadou, K., & Lewton, M. (2014b). Is empathizing intuitive and systemizing deliberative? Personality and Individual Differences, 66, 39–43. CrossRef Brosnan, M., Hollinworth, M., Antoniadou, K., & Lewton, M. (2014b). Is empathizing intuitive and systemizing deliberative? Personality and Individual Differences, 66, 39–43. CrossRef
go back to reference Calder, A. J., Young, A. W., Perrett, D. I., Etcoff, N. L., & Rowland, D. (1996). Categorical perception of morphed facial expressions. Visual Cognition, 3, 81–117. CrossRef Calder, A. J., Young, A. W., Perrett, D. I., Etcoff, N. L., & Rowland, D. (1996). Categorical perception of morphed facial expressions. Visual Cognition, 3, 81–117. CrossRef
go back to reference Castelli, F. (2005). Understanding emotions from standardized facial expressions in autism and normal development. Autism, 9, 428–449. CrossRefPubMed Castelli, F. (2005). Understanding emotions from standardized facial expressions in autism and normal development. Autism, 9, 428–449. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Christ, S. E., Kanne, S. M., & Reiersen, A. M. (2010). Executive function in individuals with subthreshold autism traits. Neuropsychology, 24, 590–598. CrossRefPubMed Christ, S. E., Kanne, S. M., & Reiersen, A. M. (2010). Executive function in individuals with subthreshold autism traits. Neuropsychology, 24, 590–598. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Clark, T. F., Winkielman, P., & McIntosh, D. N. (2008). Autism and the extraction of emotion from briefly presented facial expressions: Stumbling at the first step of empathy. Emotion, 6, 803–809. CrossRef Clark, T. F., Winkielman, P., & McIntosh, D. N. (2008). Autism and the extraction of emotion from briefly presented facial expressions: Stumbling at the first step of empathy. Emotion, 6, 803–809. CrossRef
go back to reference Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2005). Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). USA: Western Psychological Services. Constantino, J. N., & Gruber, C. P. (2005). Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). USA: Western Psychological Services.
go back to reference Constantino, J. N., Lavesser, P. D., Zhang, Y., Abbacchi, A. M., Gray, T., & Todd, R. D. (2007). Rapid quantitative assessment of autistic social impairment by classroom teachers. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 1668–1676. CrossRefPubMed Constantino, J. N., Lavesser, P. D., Zhang, Y., Abbacchi, A. M., Gray, T., & Todd, R. D. (2007). Rapid quantitative assessment of autistic social impairment by classroom teachers. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 1668–1676. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference De Martino, B., Harrison, N. A., Knafo, S., Bird, G., & Dolan, R. J. (2008). Explaining enhanced logical consistency during decision-making in autism. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 10746–10750. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed De Martino, B., Harrison, N. A., Knafo, S., Bird, G., & Dolan, R. J. (2008). Explaining enhanced logical consistency during decision-making in autism. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 10746–10750. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Desmet, P. M. A. (2003). Measuring emotion; development and application of an instrument to measure emotional responses to products. In M. A. Blythe, A. F. Monk, K. Overbeeke, & P. C. Wright (Eds.), Funology: From usability to enjoyment (pp. 111–123). Dordrecht: Kluwer. CrossRef Desmet, P. M. A. (2003). Measuring emotion; development and application of an instrument to measure emotional responses to products. In M. A. Blythe, A. F. Monk, K. Overbeeke, & P. C. Wright (Eds.), Funology: From usability to enjoyment (pp. 111–123). Dordrecht: Kluwer. CrossRef
go back to reference Desmet, P. M. A., Hekkert, P., & Jacobs, J. J. (2000). When a car makes you smile: Development and application of an instrument to measure product emotions. Advances in Consumer Research, 27, 111–117. Desmet, P. M. A., Hekkert, P., & Jacobs, J. J. (2000). When a car makes you smile: Development and application of an instrument to measure product emotions. Advances in Consumer Research, 27, 111–117.
go back to reference Desmet, P. M. A., Porcelijn, R., & van Dijk, M. (2007). Emotional design; application of a research based design approach. Journal of Knowledge, Technology & Policy, 20, 141–155. CrossRef Desmet, P. M. A., Porcelijn, R., & van Dijk, M. (2007). Emotional design; application of a research based design approach. Journal of Knowledge, Technology & Policy, 20, 141–155. CrossRef
go back to reference Doi, H., Fujisawa, T. X., Kanai, C., Ohta, H., Yokoi, H., et al. (2013). Recognition of facial expressions and prosodic cues with graded emotional intensities in adults with Asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 2099–2113. CrossRefPubMed Doi, H., Fujisawa, T. X., Kanai, C., Ohta, H., Yokoi, H., et al. (2013). Recognition of facial expressions and prosodic cues with graded emotional intensities in adults with Asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 2099–2113. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1971). Constants across cultures in face and emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17, 124–129. CrossRefPubMed Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1971). Constants across cultures in face and emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 17, 124–129. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Gastgeb, H. Z., Rump, K. M., Best, C. A., Minshew, N. J., & Strauss, M. S. (2009). Prototype formation: Can individuals with autism abstract facial prototypes? Autism Research, 2, 279–284. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Gastgeb, H. Z., Rump, K. M., Best, C. A., Minshew, N. J., & Strauss, M. S. (2009). Prototype formation: Can individuals with autism abstract facial prototypes? Autism Research, 2, 279–284. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Gastgeb, H. Z., Wilkinson, D. A., Minshew, N. J., & Strauss, M. S. (2011). Can individuals with autism abstract prototypes of natural faces? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1609–1618. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Gastgeb, H. Z., Wilkinson, D. A., Minshew, N. J., & Strauss, M. S. (2011). Can individuals with autism abstract prototypes of natural faces? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 1609–1618. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Golan, O., Ashwin, E., Granader, Y., McClintock, S., Day, K., Legget, V., et al. (2010). Enhancing emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum conditions: An intervention using animated vehicles with real emotional faces. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 269–279. www.​thetransporters.​com Golan, O., Ashwin, E., Granader, Y., McClintock, S., Day, K., Legget, V., et al. (2010). Enhancing emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum conditions: An intervention using animated vehicles with real emotional faces. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 269–279. www.​thetransporters.​com
go back to reference Golan, O., Baron-Cohen, S., Hill, J. J., & Rutherford, M. D. (2007). The ‘Reading the Mind in the Voice’ test-revised: A study of complex emotion recognition in adults with and without autism spectrum conditions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1096–1106. CrossRefPubMed Golan, O., Baron-Cohen, S., Hill, J. J., & Rutherford, M. D. (2007). The ‘Reading the Mind in the Voice’ test-revised: A study of complex emotion recognition in adults with and without autism spectrum conditions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1096–1106. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Grelotti, D. J., Gauthier, I., & Schultz, R. T. (2002). Social interest and the development of cortical face specialization: what autism teaches us about face processing. Developmental Psychobiology, 40, 213–225. CrossRefPubMed Grelotti, D. J., Gauthier, I., & Schultz, R. T. (2002). Social interest and the development of cortical face specialization: what autism teaches us about face processing. Developmental Psychobiology, 40, 213–225. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Grossman, R. B., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2012). “Who Said That?” Matching of low- and high-intensity emotional prosody to facial expressions by adolescents with ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 2546–2557. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Grossman, R. B., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2012). “Who Said That?” Matching of low- and high-intensity emotional prosody to facial expressions by adolescents with ASD. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 2546–2557. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Haberman, J., & Whitney, D. (2007). Rapid extraction of mean emotion and gender from sets of faces. Current Biology, 17, R751–R753. CrossRefPubMed Haberman, J., & Whitney, D. (2007). Rapid extraction of mean emotion and gender from sets of faces. Current Biology, 17, R751–R753. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Harms, M. B., Martin, A., & Wallace, G. L. (2010). Facial emotion recognition in Autism spectrum disorders: A review of behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Neuropsychology Review, 20, 290–322. CrossRefPubMed Harms, M. B., Martin, A., & Wallace, G. L. (2010). Facial emotion recognition in Autism spectrum disorders: A review of behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Neuropsychology Review, 20, 290–322. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Jones, C. R., Pickles, A., Falcaro, M., Marsden, A. J., Happé, F., et al. (2011). A multimodal approach to emotion recognition ability in Autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 275–285. CrossRefPubMed Jones, C. R., Pickles, A., Falcaro, M., Marsden, A. J., Happé, F., et al. (2011). A multimodal approach to emotion recognition ability in Autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 275–285. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kanne, S. M., Christ, S. E., & Reiersen, A. M. (2009). Psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial difficulties in young adults with autistic traits. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 827–833. CrossRefPubMed Kanne, S. M., Christ, S. E., & Reiersen, A. M. (2009). Psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial difficulties in young adults with autistic traits. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 827–833. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kleinman, J., Marciano, P. L., & Ault, R. L. (2001). Advanced theory of mind in high-functioning adults with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 29–36. CrossRefPubMed Kleinman, J., Marciano, P. L., & Ault, R. L. (2001). Advanced theory of mind in high-functioning adults with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 29–36. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., Volkmar, F., & Cohen, D. (2002). Visual fixation patterns during viewing of naturalistic social situations as predictors of social competence in individuals with autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 809–816. CrossRefPubMed Klin, A., Jones, W., Schultz, R., Volkmar, F., & Cohen, D. (2002). Visual fixation patterns during viewing of naturalistic social situations as predictors of social competence in individuals with autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 809–816. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Kuusikko, S., Haapsamo, H., Jansson-Verkasalo, E., Hurtig, T., Mattila, M. L., et al. (2009). Emotion recognition in children and adolescents with Autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 938–945. CrossRefPubMed Kuusikko, S., Haapsamo, H., Jansson-Verkasalo, E., Hurtig, T., Mattila, M. L., et al. (2009). Emotion recognition in children and adolescents with Autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 938–945. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Law Smith, M. J., Montagne, B., Perrett, D. I., Gill, M., & Gallagher, L. (2010). Detecting subtle facial emotion recognition deficits in high-functioning Autism using dynamic stimuli of varying intensities. Neuropsychologia, 48, 2777–2781. CrossRefPubMed Law Smith, M. J., Montagne, B., Perrett, D. I., Gill, M., & Gallagher, L. (2010). Detecting subtle facial emotion recognition deficits in high-functioning Autism using dynamic stimuli of varying intensities. Neuropsychologia, 48, 2777–2781. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Lord, C., Rutter, M., Goode, S., Heemsbergen, J., Jordan, H., Mawhood, L., & Schopler, E. (1989). Autism diagnostic observation schedule: A standardized observation of communicative and social behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 185–212. CrossRefPubMed Lord, C., Rutter, M., Goode, S., Heemsbergen, J., Jordan, H., Mawhood, L., & Schopler, E. (1989). Autism diagnostic observation schedule: A standardized observation of communicative and social behavior. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 185–212. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H. C. (2014). Judgments of subtle facial expressions of emotion. Emotion, 14, 349–357. CrossRefPubMed Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H. C. (2014). Judgments of subtle facial expressions of emotion. Emotion, 14, 349–357. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mazefsky, C. A., & Oswald, D. P. (2007). Emotion perception in ASPERGER’s syndrome and high-functioning autism: The importance of diagnostic criteria and cue intensity. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1086–1095. CrossRefPubMed Mazefsky, C. A., & Oswald, D. P. (2007). Emotion perception in ASPERGER’s syndrome and high-functioning autism: The importance of diagnostic criteria and cue intensity. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1086–1095. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mottron, L., Dawson, M., Soulières, I., Hubert, B., & Burack, J. (2006). Enhanced perceptual functioning in autism: An update, and eight principles of autistic perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 27–43. CrossRefPubMed Mottron, L., Dawson, M., Soulières, I., Hubert, B., & Burack, J. (2006). Enhanced perceptual functioning in autism: An update, and eight principles of autistic perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 27–43. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Mottron, L., Peretz, I., & Ménard, E. (2000). Local and global processing of music in high-functioning persons with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 1057–1068. CrossRefPubMed Mottron, L., Peretz, I., & Ménard, E. (2000). Local and global processing of music in high-functioning persons with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 1057–1068. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Pellicano, E., Dinsmore, A., & Charman, T. (2013). A future made together: Shaping autism research in the UK. London: Institute of Education. Pellicano, E., Dinsmore, A., & Charman, T. (2013). A future made together: Shaping autism research in the UK. London: Institute of Education.
go back to reference Pelphrey, K. A., Sasson, N. J., Reznick, J. S., Paul, G., Goldman, B. D., & Piven, J. (2002). Visual scanning of faces in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 249–261. CrossRefPubMed Pelphrey, K. A., Sasson, N. J., Reznick, J. S., Paul, G., Goldman, B. D., & Piven, J. (2002). Visual scanning of faces in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 249–261. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Philip, R. C. M., Whalley, H. C., Stanfield, A. C., Sprengelmeyer, R., Santos, I. M., Young, A. W., et al. (2010). Deficits in facial, body movement, and vocal emotional processing in Autism spectrum disorders. Psychological Medicine, 40, 1919–1929. CrossRefPubMed Philip, R. C. M., Whalley, H. C., Stanfield, A. C., Sprengelmeyer, R., Santos, I. M., Young, A. W., et al. (2010). Deficits in facial, body movement, and vocal emotional processing in Autism spectrum disorders. Psychological Medicine, 40, 1919–1929. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Reiersen, A. M., Constantino, J. N., Grimmer, M., Martin, N. G., & Todd, R. D. (2008). Evidence for shared genetic influences on self-reported ADHD and autistic symptoms in young adult Australian twins. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 11, 579–585. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Reiersen, A. M., Constantino, J. N., Grimmer, M., Martin, N. G., & Todd, R. D. (2008). Evidence for shared genetic influences on self-reported ADHD and autistic symptoms in young adult Australian twins. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 11, 579–585. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Rossett, D. B., Rondan, C., Da Fonseca, D., Santos, A., Assouline, B., & Deruelle, C. (2008). Typical emotion processing for cartoon but not for real faces in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 919–925. CrossRef Rossett, D. B., Rondan, C., Da Fonseca, D., Santos, A., Assouline, B., & Deruelle, C. (2008). Typical emotion processing for cartoon but not for real faces in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 919–925. CrossRef
go back to reference Rump, K. M., Giovannelli, J. L., Minshew, N. J., & Strauss, M. S. (2009). The development of emotion recognition in individuals with autism. Child Development, 80, 1434–1447. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Rump, K. M., Giovannelli, J. L., Minshew, N. J., & Strauss, M. S. (2009). The development of emotion recognition in individuals with autism. Child Development, 80, 1434–1447. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Rutherford, M. D., & McIntosh, D. N. (2007). Rules versus prototype matching: Strategies of perception of emotional facial expressions in the autism spectrum. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 187–196. CrossRefPubMed Rutherford, M. D., & McIntosh, D. N. (2007). Rules versus prototype matching: Strategies of perception of emotional facial expressions in the autism spectrum. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 187–196. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Sawyer, A. C. P., Williamson, P., & Young, R. L. (2012). Can gaze avoidance explain why individuals with Asperger’s syndrome can’t recognise emotions from facial expressions? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 606–618. CrossRefPubMed Sawyer, A. C. P., Williamson, P., & Young, R. L. (2012). Can gaze avoidance explain why individuals with Asperger’s syndrome can’t recognise emotions from facial expressions? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 606–618. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Strauss, M. S., Newell, L. C., Best, C. A., Hannigen, S. F., Gastgeb, H. Z., & Giovannelli, J. L. (2012). The development of facial gender categorization in individuals with and without autism: The impact of typicality. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 1847–1855. CrossRefPubMed Strauss, M. S., Newell, L. C., Best, C. A., Hannigen, S. F., Gastgeb, H. Z., & Giovannelli, J. L. (2012). The development of facial gender categorization in individuals with and without autism: The impact of typicality. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 1847–1855. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference Tracy, J. L., Robins, R. W., Schriber, R. A., & Solomon, M. (2011). Is emotion recognition impaired in individuals with Autism spectrum disorders? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 102–109. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed Tracy, J. L., Robins, R. W., Schriber, R. A., & Solomon, M. (2011). Is emotion recognition impaired in individuals with Autism spectrum disorders? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 102–109. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
go back to reference Walsh, J. A., Vida, M. D., & Rutherford, M. D. (2013). Strategies for perceiving facial expressions in adults with Autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (online first). Walsh, J. A., Vida, M. D., & Rutherford, M. D. (2013). Strategies for perceiving facial expressions in adults with Autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (online first).
go back to reference Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence. Oxford: Pearson Assessment. Wechsler, D. (1999). Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence. Oxford: Pearson Assessment.
go back to reference Widen, S. C., & Russell, J. A. (2003). A closer look at preschoolers’ freely produced labels for facial expressions. Developmental Psychology, 39, 114–128. CrossRefPubMed Widen, S. C., & Russell, J. A. (2003). A closer look at preschoolers’ freely produced labels for facial expressions. Developmental Psychology, 39, 114–128. CrossRefPubMed
go back to reference World Health Organisation. (1992). ICD-10 classifications of mental and behavioural disorder: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organisation. World Health Organisation. (1992). ICD-10 classifications of mental and behavioural disorder: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
Metagegevens
Titel
Emotion Recognition in Animated Compared to Human Stimuli in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Auteurs
Mark Brosnan
Hilary Johnson
Beate Grawmeyer
Emma Chapman
Laura Benton
Publicatiedatum
01-06-2015
Uitgeverij
Springer US
Gepubliceerd in
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders / Uitgave 6/2015
Print ISSN: 0162-3257
Elektronisch ISSN: 1573-3432
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-014-2338-9

Andere artikelen Uitgave 6/2015

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 6/2015 Naar de uitgave