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04-04-2019 | Empirical Research | Uitgave 7/2019

Journal of Youth and Adolescence 7/2019

Emerging Adulthood and Prospective Depression: A Simultaneous Test of Cumulative Risk Theories

Tijdschrift:
Journal of Youth and Adolescence > Uitgave 7/2019
Auteurs:
Joseph R. Cohen, Kari N. Thomsen, Anna Racioppi, Sergi Ballespi, Tamara Sheinbaum, Thomas R. Kwapil, Neus Barrantes-Vidal
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Abstract

Past research indicates that a history of depression and exposure to abuse and neglect represent some of the most robust predictors of depression in emerging adults. However, studies rarely test the additive or interactive risk associated with these distinct risk factors. In response, the present study explored how these three risk factors (prior depression, abuse, and neglect) synergistically predicted prospective depressive symptoms in a sample of 214 emerging adults (Mage = 21.4 years; SDage = 2.4; 78% females). Subtypes of maltreatment and lifetime history of depression were assessed through semi-structured interviews, and depressive symptoms were assessed annually for three years via self-report measures. The results indicated that for both males and females, a lifetime history of depression, abuse, and neglect-exposure uniquely conferred risk for elevated depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the interaction between neglect and prior depression forecasted increasing depressive symptoms, and a history of abuse also predicted increasing depressive symptoms, but only in females. These findings are contextualized within extant developmental psychopathology theories, and translational implications for trauma-informed depression prevention efforts are discussed.

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