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2019 | OriginalPaper | Hoofdstuk

7. Embryonic, placental and foetal growth and development

Auteurs : Dr Wessel Ganzevoort, Dr Rebecca C. Painter, Dr Aleid G. van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, MD, PhD Bernadette S. de Bakker, Régine P. M. Steegers-Theunissen, Dr Marijke M. Faas

Gepubliceerd in: Textbook of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Uitgeverij: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum

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Summary

In this chapter normal foetal growth is described, starting from the embryonic period until delivery. Environmental and behavioural influences on growth are discussed and how these lead to abnormal growth patterns. An important subject is how to measure growth and how to discern normal deviations in size from abnormal growth. One of the important learning goals is to understand the pathophysiological processes of excessive growth and restricted growth, as well as their impact on outcomes in the immediate period of pregnancy and in later life. From this chapter, the reader will learn about the large influence of maternal behaviour, health and disease on offspring health. Lastly, the evidence on interventions to improve outcomes is discussed.
Bijlagen
Alleen toegankelijk voor geautoriseerde gebruikers
Woordenlijst
Viviparous
Born live
Ovoviparous
Born live in protective egg, no nutrition from mother
Decidua
The decidua is the uterine lining (endometrium) during a pregnancy, which forms the maternal part of the placenta
LGA
Large for gestational age, i.e. birth weight above a cut-off percentile for gestational age
SGA
Small for gestational age, i.e. birth weight below a cut-off percentile for gestational age
FGR
Foetal growth restriction, i.e. a pathological smallness due to pathological placental process, where smallness is an individual measure and may not lie outside reference cut-offs
Doppler
A technique that uses the transformation of sound frequency due to movement. A good example is the change of sound heard when a racing car passes by. The ultrasound software uses this frequency shift to calculate flow velocity in a blood vessel
Pulsatility index
A measure that uses diastolic, systolic and average blood flow velocity during a foetal heart cycle to express resistance of the vascularized organ, in the case of the umbilical artery this is the placental unit. A high PI indicates high resistance
Crossing centiles
If in two subsequent ultrasound estimations of foetal weight the estimated foetal weight appears to be at a significantly different percentile than previously
Neurodevelopment
Impairments of the growth and development of the brain or central nervous system
Literatuur
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go back to reference Redman CW, Sargent IL, Staff AC. IFPA senior award lecture: making sense of preeclampsia – two placental causes of preeclampsia? Placenta 2014;35 Suppl:S20–5. CrossRef Redman CW, Sargent IL, Staff AC. IFPA senior award lecture: making sense of preeclampsia – two placental causes of preeclampsia? Placenta 2014;35 Suppl:S20–5. CrossRef
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Metagegevens
Titel
Embryonic, placental and foetal growth and development
Auteurs
Dr Wessel Ganzevoort
Dr Rebecca C. Painter
Dr Aleid G. van Wassenaer-Leemhuis
MD, PhD Bernadette S. de Bakker
Régine P. M. Steegers-Theunissen
Dr Marijke M. Faas
Copyright
2019
Uitgeverij
Bohn Stafleu van Loghum
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-368-2131-5_7