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09-10-2020 | Original Article | Uitgave 5/2021

Child Psychiatry & Human Development 5/2021

Elevated Rates of Restraint and Seclusion in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients in China and Their Associated Factors

Tijdschrift:
Child Psychiatry & Human Development > Uitgave 5/2021
Auteurs:
Feng Geng, Feng Jiang, Rachel Conrad, Tingfang Liu, Yuanli Liu, Huanzhong Liu, Yi-lang Tang
Belangrijke opmerkingen
Co-first author: Feng Geng, Feng Jiang
Feng Geng and Feng Jiang contributed equally to this paper.

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Abstract

To investigate the rate of restraint and seclusion (R&S) use in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients in China and to examine factors associated with use of these interventions. As part of an official national survey, 41 provincial tertiary psychiatric hospitals in China were selected. Data from 196 youth inpatients discharged from these hospitals from March 19 to 31, 2019 were retrieved and analyzed. (1) The overall rate of R&S was 29.1% (N = 57) and the rate of restraint was 28.6% (N = 56), and seclusion was 11.7% (N = 23) respectively. (2) Compared to patients who did not require R&S, those who required R&S were more likely to have been hospitalized on an involuntary basis, more likely to present with either manic symptoms or aggressive behavior as primary reason for admission, had more frequent aggressive behaviors during hospitalization, and had a significantly longer length of stay. (3) A logistic regression showed that aggressive behaviors during hospitalization was significantly associated with the use of R&S (OR = 21.277, p < 0.001), along with three other factors: manic symptoms as a reason for admission, involuntary admission and a lower GAF score at admission (all p < 0.01). The rate of R&S is dramatically higher in child and adolescent psychiatric hospitalizations in China compared to other regions. Targeted training of staff, development of precise operational guidelines for appropriate use of R&S, and strict oversight are urgently needed to minimize the inappropriate use of R&S in child and adolescent patients.

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