Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The transition to middle school can be a significant stressor for young adolescents, leading to increases in depression for those who are vulnerable. The current study examined how perceived support from mothers, fathers, and teachers independently and interactively predicted developmental patterns of depressive symptoms during adolescents’ transition to middle school, and gender differences in these effects of social support. Four timepoints of data were collected from 1,163 participants (48.5 % boys) enrolled in an ethnically diverse suburban middle school in the Midwest between 1.25 and 20.50 months after these participants entered the 7th grade. The results from growth curve modeling indicated that levels of depressive symptoms decreased over time for boys but remained stable for girls during the developmental period examined. There is also evidence that support from mothers, fathers, and teachers independently and inversely predicted levels of depressive symptoms at the beginning of the 7th grade, and support from both mothers and fathers predicted changes in these symptoms. Effects of mothers’ support and teachers’ support, but not the effect of fathers’ support, remained significant in reducing levels of depressive symptoms at 20.50 months from middle school entry. Furthermore, the protective effect of mothers’ support was stronger for girls than for boys. Finally, mothers’ support interacted with fathers’ support and teachers’ support to predict levels of depressive symptoms. Specifically, the protective effect of mothers’ support was more salient when fathers’ support was low, and vice versa. In contrast, support from mothers and teachers had an amplifying, synergistic effect.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Blum, R. W., McNeely, C. A., & Rinehart, P. M. (2002). Improving the odds: The untapped power of schools to improve the health of teens. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Adolescent Health and Development, University of Minnesota.
Costello, D. M., Swendsen, J., Rose, J. S., & Dierker, L. C. (2008). Risk and protective factors associated with trajectories of depressed mood from adolescence to early adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,76, 173–183. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.76.2.173. CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMed
Davis, M. H., Morris, M. M., & Kraus, L. A. (1998). Relationship-specific and global perceptions of social support: Associations with well-being and attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 468–481. doi: 10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1688.
De Wit, D. J. D., Karioja, K., Rye, B. J., & Shain, M. (2011). Perceptions of declining classmate and teacher support following the transition to high school: Potential correlates of increasing student mental health difficulties. Psychology in the Schools,48(6), 556–572. doi: 10.1002/pits.20576. CrossRef
Demaray, M. K., & Malecki, C. K. (2002). Critical levels of social support associated with student adjustment. School Psychology Quarterly,17, 213–241. CrossRef
DeMaris, A. (2004). Regression with social data: Modeling continuous and limited response variables (1st ed.). NJ: Wiley-Interscience. CrossRef
Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., et al. (1993a). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents’ experiences in schools and in families. American Psychologist,48(2), 90–101. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.48.2.90. CrossRefPubMed
Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., McGee, R., & Angell, K. E. (1998). Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,107(1), 128–140. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.107.1.128. CrossRefPubMed
Jia, Y., Way, N., Ling, G., Yoshikawa, H., Chen, X., Hughes, D., et al. (2009). The influence of student perceptions of school climate on socioemotional and academic adjustment: A comparison of Chinese and American adolescents. Child Development,80(5), 1514–1530. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01348.x. CrossRefPubMed
Malecki, C. K., Demaray, M. K., & Elliott, S. N. (2003). A working manual on the development of the child and adolescent social support scale (2000). Dekalb: Unpublished manuscript, Northern Illinois University.
Niemiec, C. P., Lynch, M. F., Vansteenkiste, M., Bernstein, J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2006). The antecedents and consequences of autonomous self-regulation for college: A self-determination theory perspective on socialization. Journal of Adolescence,29(5), 761–775. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2005.11.009. CrossRefPubMed
Preacher, K. J., Curran, P. J., & Bauer, D. J. (2006). Computational tools for probing interaction effects in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics,31, 437–448. CrossRef
Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). BASC-2: Behavior assessment system for children, second edition manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Rueger, S. Y., & Malecki, C. K. (2011). Effects of stress, attributional style and perceived parental support on depressive symptoms in early adolescence: A prospective analysis. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology,40(3), 347–359. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2011.563461. CrossRefPubMed
Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2008). Gender differences in the relationship between perceived social support and student adjustment during early adolescence. School Psychology Quarterly,23, 496–514. CrossRef
Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2010). Relationship between multiple sources of perceived social support and psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence: Comparisons across gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence,39(1), 47–61. doi: 10.1007/s10964-008-9368-6. CrossRefPubMed
Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis: Modeling change and event occurrence. New York: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Twisk, J. (2006). Applied multilevel analysis (1st ed.). NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Twisk, J., & de Vente, W. (2002). Attrition in longitudinal studies: How to deal with missing data. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 55(4), 329–337.
Wigfield, A., Eccles, J. S., Schiefele, U., Roeser, R. W., & Davis-Kean, P. (2006). Development of achievement motivation. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), (pp (pp. 933–1002). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
- Effects of Perceived Support from Mothers, Fathers, and Teachers on Depressive Symptoms During the Transition to Middle School
Sandra Yu Rueger
Lyndsay N. Jenkins
Hyung Joon Choe
- Springer US