Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Ecological view of human development calls for an investigation of multiple contexts surrounding children. In South Korea, traditional Confucianism and recent technological advancements serve as influential social and cultural contexts that affect parent–child relations and child development. High levels of parental control and strong emphasis on academic achievement have long been distinctive features of Korean parenting practices, which are attributable to Confucian values. Additionally, Korean children’s mobile phone dependency (MPD) has become a growing concern, as South Korea developed as an IT powerhouse. Combined, these contexts resulted in high parental control of children’s mobile phone use, so that such electronic devices would not hinder learning and achievement. Effects of high parental control on children’s MPD and their school life, however, have yet to be discovered. We hypothesized, that, unlike parents’ intentions, psychological control is more likely to increase MPD and disrupt school life. To examine this research model, we made use of the first and third wave data from Korea Children and Youth Panel Survey. Participants were 2378 children (52.2 % boys) of the same age of 10 in the first wave. After multiple imputation for missing values, hierarchical logistic regression followed to examine the mediational model. The results verified the hypothesized model, showing significant adverse influence of psychological control on MPD, self-regulated learning and school adjustment. MPD fully mediated the effect of psychological control on self-regulations, while partially mediating the effects on school adjustment. Implications for Korean parents with regard to supporting children’s psychological autonomy was discussed.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Barber, B. K., & Harmon, E. L. (2002). Violating the self: Parental psychological control of children and adolescents. In Brian K. Barber (Ed.), Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Barrera, M., Prelow, H. M., Dumka, L. E., Gonzales, N. A., Knight, G. P., Michaels, M. L., et al. (2002). Pathways from family economic conditions to adolescents’ distress: Supportive parenting, stressors outside the family, and deviant peers. Journal of Community Psychology,30, 135–152. CrossRef
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Chang, K. M. (2011). The influences of parental autonomy support and psychological control perceived by the elementary school children on their self-esteem and school adjustment. Korean Journal of Youth Studies,18, 243–261.
Chang, S., Song, S., & Cho, M. (2011). The effects of mobile phone dependency, perceived parenting attitude, attachment to peer on school life adjustment of middle school students. Adolescent Studies,18, 431–451.
Chiu, L. (1987). Child-rearing attitudes of Chinese American, Chinese American-American, and European-American mothers. International Journal of Psychology,22, 409–419. CrossRef
Clark, D. B., Lesnic, L., & Hegedus, A. N. (1997). Traumas and other adverse life events in adolescents with alcohol abuse and dependence. Journal of American academy of Child Adolescence Psychiatry,36, 1744–1751. CrossRef
Collins, W. A., & Steinberg, L. (2006). Adolescent development in interpersonal context. In N. Einseber, W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods,1, 16. CrossRef
Davis, R. A. (2001). A cognitive–behavioral model of pathological Internet use. Computers in Human Behavior,17, 187–195. CrossRef
Dornbusch, S. M., Ritter, P. L., Leiderman, P. H., Roberts, D. F., & Fraleigh, M. J. (1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child Development. Special Issue: Schools and development,58, 326–341.
Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York, NY: Guilford.
Goldberg, I. (1996). Internet addiction disorder. Retrieved November 24, 2004 from Psychom.net, www.psycom.net/iadcriteria.html. Accessed November 20, 2004.
Gottfried, A. E., Fleming, J. S., & Gottfried, A. W. (1994). Role of parental motivational practices in children’s academic intrinsic motivation and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology,86, 104. CrossRef
Grolnick, W. S. (2002). The psychology of parental control: How well-meant parenting backfires. New York: Psychology Press.
Grolnick, W. S., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2009). Issues and challenges in studying parental control: Toward a new conceptualization. Child Development Perspectives,3, 165–170. CrossRef
Han, J., & Hur, G. H. (2004). Construction and validation of mobile phone addiction scale. Korean Association for Broadcasting & Telecommunication Studies Conference, 48(6), 226–247.
Ho, D. Y. F. (1994). Cognitive socialization in Confucian heritage cultures. In P. M. Greenfield & R. R. Cocking (Eds.), Cross-cultural roots of minority child development (pp. 285–313). NJ: Erlbaum.
Huh, M. Y. (2004). A study for the development and validation of an inventory for parenting behavior perceived by adolescents. The Korean Journal of Youth Counseling,12, 170–189.
Jacobson, K. C., & Crockett, L. J. (2000). Parental monitoring and adolescent adjustment: An ecological perspective. Journal of Research on Adolescence,10, 65–97. CrossRef
Jeon, S. Y. (2007). The effect of mother’s psychological control, children’s behavioral autonomy and self control on children’s problems behavior. Journal of Korean Home Management Association,25, 169–179.
Kim, S. K. (1997). Social welfare service for runaway girls. Seoul: Korea Woman Development Institute.
Kim, S. S. (2000). Results and interpretation of international comparison of TIMSS-R background factors. In The third international mathematics and science study-repeat seminar (Korean Institute for Curriculum and Evaluation) (pp. 121–171).
Kim, E. K. (2007). Differences in types of internet use, self-regulation, self-regulated learning and academic achievement of highschool students according to the level of mobile phone use. Unpublished Master’s Dissertation, Ehwa Women’s University.
Kim, J. Y. (2013). Effect of smartphone addition on school resilience in elementary school students. Journal of Transactional Analysis & Counseling,3, 63–79.
Kim, J. H. (2014). The effects of parenting attitude and peer attachment on the self-regulated learning of adolescents mediated by mobile phone dependency. Forum for Youth Culture,39, 41–61. CrossRef
Kim, Y. M., & Lim, Y. S. (2014). Structural model of democratic parenting style, ego-resilience, cell phone dependency, self-directed learning. Studies on Korean Youth,23, 273–299.
Kim, H. Y., & Park, S. Y. (2008). The effects of mothers’ perfectionism and psychological control behavior on children`s perfectionism and phildren’s depression. The Korean Journal of Developmental Psychology,21, 115–131.
Knollmann, M., & Wild, E. (2007). Quality of parental support and students’ emotions during homework: Moderating effects of students’ motivational orientations. European Journal of Psychology of Education,22, 63–76. CrossRef
Kwak, S. R. (2006). A structural equation modeling analysis of adolescents’ school adjustment. Korean Journal of Sociology of Education,16, 1–26.
Lavy, V., & Sand, E. (2012). The Friends factor: How students’ social networks affect their academic achievement and well-being? (No. w18430). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Lee, S. H., Kim, H. S., & Nah, E. Y. (2002). Research on adolescents’ cell phone use and its effect, Research Report 2002. Seoul: Social Mental Health Research Hub form Samsung Life Public Foundation.
Lee, H., & Kwon, Y. (2012). The relationships between mother’s psychological control and self-directed learning ability in elementary school students: Focusing on the mediating effects of self-determined motivation. Journal of Korean Home Economics Association,50, 125–135. CrossRef
Lieberman-Betz, R. G., Yoder, P., Stone, W. L., Nahmias, A. S., Carter, A. S., Celimli-Aksoy, S., & Messinger, D. S. (2014). An illustration of using multiple imputation versus listwise deletion analyses: The effect of Hanen’s “More Than Words” on parenting stress. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities,119, 472–486. PubMedCrossRef
Lin, C. Y. C., & Fu, V. R. (1990). A comparison of child-rearing practices among Chinese, immigrant Chinese, and Caucasian-American parents. Child Development,61, 429–433. CrossRef
Mills, R. S., & Rubin, K. H. (1998). Are behavioural and psychological control differentially associated with childhood aggression and social withdrawal? Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science,30, 132–136. CrossRef
Ministry of Education. (2014). 2014 OECD Educational indicators.
Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. (2008). 2008 Brief Statistics on Korean Education.
Ministry of Gender Equality and Family. (2013). 2013 Youth media use survey.
Moss, E., & Strayer, F. F. (1990). Interactive problem-solving of gifted and non-gifted preschoolers with their mothers. International Journal of Behavioral Development,13, 177–197. CrossRef
National Youth Policy Institute. (2012). Korean Youth and Children Panel Survey 1-3th wave User’s Guide.
Neville, R. C. (2000). Boston Confucianism. NY: State University of New York Press.
Nota, L., Soresi, S., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2004). Self-regulation and academic achievement and resilience: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Educational Research,41, 198–215. CrossRef
Oh, E. J., & Jang, S. H. (2009). The relationship among social support, ego-identity, and cellular phone addiction in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Welfare,11, 25–44.
Our Mobile Planet by Google. (2013). The United States Ranks 13th in Smartphone Penetration.
Padmawidjaja, I. A., & Chao, R. K. (2010). Parental beliefs and their relation to the parental practices of immigrant Chinese Americans and European Americans. In S. T. Russell, L. J. Crockett, & R. K. Chao (Eds.), Asian American parenting and parent–adolescent relationships. New York: Springer.
Park, I. H., & Cho, L. J. (1995). Confucianism and the Korean family. Journal of Comparative Family Studies,26, 117–134.
Park, S. K., Kim, J. Y., & Cho, C. B. (2008). Prevalence of Internet addiction and correlations with family factors among South Korean adolescents. Adolescence,43, 895–909. PubMed
Park, Y. S., Kim, U., & Shin, Y. (2011). Indigenous psychological analysis of perception of filial piety and its influence on life-satisfaction: With specific focus on parents of elementary school, middle school, highschool and university students. Korean Journal of Educational Research,4, 87–120.
Park, S. Y., & Lee, E. G. (2009). Domain-specific assessment of psychological control in parents of Korean adolescents: Convergent and discriminant validity. Korean Journal of Child Studies,30, 211–229.
Parker, G. (1983). Parental overprotection: A risk factor in psychosocial development. New York: Grune & Stratton.
Peterson, M. (1997). Confucianism. In J. H. Koo (Ed.), An introduction to Korean culture (pp. 135–151). Elizabeth, NJ: Hollym International.
Pino-Pasternak, D., & Whitebread, D. (2010). The role of parenting in children’s self-regulated learning. Educational Research Review,5, 220–242. CrossRef
Reyes, M. R., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., White, M., & Salovey, P. (2012). Classroom emotional climate, student engagement, and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology,104, 700–712. CrossRef
Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher–student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement a meta-analytic approach. Review of Educational Research,81, 493–529.
Rubin, D. B. (1977). Multiple imputation for nonresponse in surveys. NY: Wiley.
Seth, M. J. (2002). Education fever: Society, politics, and the pursuit of schooling in South Korea. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Seth, M. (2012). Education zeal, state control and citizenship in South Korea. Citizenship Studies,16, 13–28. CrossRef
Sigel, I. E. (2002). The psychological distancing model: A study of the socialization of cognition. Culture & Psychology,8, 189–214. CrossRef
Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Duriez, B., & Goossens, L. (2006). In search of the sources of psychologically controlling parenting: The role of parental separation anxiety and parental maladaptive perfectionism. Journal of Research on Adolescence,16, 539–559. CrossRef
Statista. (2013). The U.S. Ranks 8th in High Speed Internet Penetration.
Stice, E., & Barrera, M. (1995). A longitudinal examination of the reciprocal relations between perceived parenting and adolescents’ substance use and externalizing behaviors. Developmental Psychology,31, 322–334. CrossRef
Stolz, H. E., Barber, B. K., & Olsen, J. A. (2005). Toward disentangling fathering and mothering: An assessment of relative importance. Journal of Marriage and Family,67, 1076–1092. CrossRef
Sung, Y. S. (2008). Mobile phone dependency, motivations and effects of mobile phone usage among Korean adolescents. Korean Journal of Child Studies,29, 181–197.
Sung, E. M., & Jin, S. H. (2012). The effects of cell phone use according to the adolescence gender differences on self-regulated learning and achievement. The Journal of Educational Information and Media,18, 389–415.
Trommsdorff, G., & Kornadt, H.-J. (2003). Parent–child relations in cross-cultural perspective. In L. Kuczynski (Ed.), Handbook of dynamics in parent–child relations. London: Sage.
Veenman, M. V., Wilhelm, P., & Beishuizen, J. J. (2004). The relation between intellectual and metacognitive skills from a developmental perspective. Learning and instruction,14, 89–109. CrossRef
Winne, P. H., & Perry, N. E. (2000). Measuring self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 531–556). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. CrossRef
Wood, D., & Middleton, D. (1975). A study of assisted problem-solving. British Journal of Psychology,66, 181–191. CrossRef
Yang, M. H. (2000). The study on the development and validation of self-regulated learning model. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Seoul National University.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). Investigating self-regulation and motivation: Historical background, methodological developments, and future prospects. American Educational Research Journal,45, 166–183. CrossRef
- Effects of Parental Psychological Control on Child’s School Life: Mobile Phone Dependency as Mediator
Hye Jun Park
- Springer US