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31-07-2019 | ORIGINAL PAPER | Uitgave 11/2019

Mindfulness 11/2019

Effects of an Ultra-brief Computer-based Mindfulness Training on Mindfulness and Self-control: a Randomised Controlled Trial Using a 40-Day Ecological Momentary Assessment

Mindfulness > Uitgave 11/2019
Zarah Rowland, Mario Wenzel, Thomas Kubiak
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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s12671-019-01204-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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This study examined whether an ultra-brief mindfulness (UBM) training can change state mindfulness and perceived state self-control in daily life (primary outcomes), ultimately improving habitual mindfulness and perceived self-control (secondary outcomes). To gain a better understanding of the beneficial effects of practising mindfulness, the study additionally examined how mindfulness and self-control were related to each other during the training.


The randomised controlled trial combined a 40-day ecological momentary assessment with seven weekly surveys. Undergraduate students (Nenrolled = 137, 104 females, Mage = 23.08, SD = 5.04 years), were either assigned to the UBM training (n = 68) or wait-list control condition (n = 69). Primary outcomes were assessed six times a day using ecological momentary assessments (7-point scales). Secondary outcomes were measured weekly (6-point scales). A breath counting task at pre- and post-training was an additional behavioural measure of mindfulness.


An intention-to-treat multivariate mixed model identified day-to-day training effects (group × days-interaction) on state mindfulness (b = .005, p = .001) and perceived state self-control (b = .007, p < .001). A mediation analysis revealed that state mindfulness mediated the training effect on perceived state self-control (b = .001, p < .001). Habitual mindfulness (b = .049, p < .001) and breath counting task performance (b = 2.446, p = .043) also improved with training whereas habitual perceived self-control did not.


These findings suggest that state mindfulness and perceived state self-control may be interconnected in daily life and may be similarly improved through an UBM training.

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