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21-08-2019 | Uitgave 12/2019 Open Access

Quality of Life Research 12/2019

Effect of tardive dyskinesia on quality of life in patients with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia

Quality of Life Research > Uitgave 12/2019
Joseph McEvoy, Sanjay K. Gandhi, Avery A. Rizio, Stephen Maher, Mark Kosinski, Jakob Bue Bjorner, Benjamin Carroll
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Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a common but serious hyperkinetic movement disorder and side effect of antipsychotic medications used to treat bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SZ). The purpose of this study was to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a population with diagnoses for BD, MDD, or SZ by comparing patients with TD (n = 197) with those without TD (n = 219). HRQoL in each group was also compared with HRQoL of the general population.


This study employed a cross-sectional web-based survey. HRQoL was assessed by four instruments: the SF-12 Health Survey, Version 2 (SF-12v2), the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF), the Social Withdrawal subscale of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (SW-ISMI); and two questions on movement disorders.


Patients with TD had significantly worse HRQoL and social withdrawal than those without. The differences were more pronounced for physical HRQoL domains than for mental health domains. Patients with more-severe TD, assessed through either self-rating or clinician rating, experienced significantly worse HRQoL than did those with less-severe TD. The impact of TD was substantially greater in patients with SZ than in those with BD or MDD. Compared with the general population, patients with BD, MDD, or SZ experienced significantly worse HRQoL regardless of TD status, although this deficit in HRQoL was greater among those with TD.


The presence of TD is associated with worse HRQoL and social withdrawal. The most severe impact of TD is on physical aspects of patients’ HRQoL.

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