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Gepubliceerd in: Neuropraxis 3/2018

17-05-2018 | Artikel

Een hersenimplantaat voor communicatie

Auteurs: Mariska J. Vansteensel, Erik J. Aarnoutse, Zac V. Freudenburg, Nick F. Ramsey

Gepubliceerd in: Neuropraxis | Uitgave 3/2018

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Samenvatting

Locked-in syndroom (LIS) is een situatie waarin iemand bij bewustzijn is, maar niet kan bewegen en spreken. De oorzaak ervan kan een hersenstaminfarct zijn of een neurodegeneratieve aandoening, zoals amyotrofe laterale sclerose (ALS). De cognitieve vermogens bij LIS zijn veelal intact. Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI’s) zijn apparaten die gebruikmaken van de hersensignalen om bijvoorbeeld computers of communicatiehulpmiddelen te bedienen. Omdat er geen spiercontrole nodig is om een BCI te gebruiken, worden BCI’s gezien als een mogelijke oplossing voor de communicatieproblemen van mensen met LIS. In dit artikel bespreken wij een recente doorbraak op het gebied van volledig implanteerbare BCI’s, waarbij een vrouw met LIS door ALS in staat is om, met hoge betrouwbaarheid, en weliswaar beperkte snelheid, haar communicatiehulpmiddel te bedienen via gemeten hersensignalen. Door te proberen haar hand te bewegen, genereert ze elektrische veranderingen in het hersensignaal, die vertaald worden in een virtuele druk op een knop, waarmee ze de gewenste letters en woorden selecteert. Hiermee is zij de eerste ter wereld die zelfstandig thuis een implanteerbare BCI gebruikt voor communicatie. De apparatuur voldoet aan veel eisen die gebruikers van BCI’s en communicatiehulpmiddelen stellen en heeft daarmee de potentie om substantieel bij te dragen aan de kwaliteit van leven van mensen met LIS.
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Metagegevens
Titel
Een hersenimplantaat voor communicatie
Auteurs
Mariska J. Vansteensel
Erik J. Aarnoutse
Zac V. Freudenburg
Nick F. Ramsey
Publicatiedatum
17-05-2018
Uitgeverij
Bohn Stafleu van Loghum
Gepubliceerd in
Neuropraxis / Uitgave 3/2018
Print ISSN: 1387-5817
Elektronisch ISSN: 1876-5785
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12474-018-00189-w

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