Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Using Conger’s family stress model as a theoretical framework, a series of mediated associations among economic hardship, perceived economic pressure, parental depression, marital conflict, psychologically controlling parenting, and children’s reticent behaviors in Romanian families were studied. The sample consisted of 121 Romanian mothers and fathers of 4–5-year-old children. Children’s kindergarten teachers living in urban and rural locations evaluated child reticence. Findings generally support the family stress model. Structural equation modeling showed that after controlling for living in a rural location, economic pressure was indirectly linked with marital conflict through depression. Depression was indirectly related to psychological control through marital conflict, and marital conflict was indirectly linked to child reticence through psychological control. Directions for future research and recommendations for interventions and public policy are described.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Anghelescu, C., & Lliescu, M. (2007). Knowledge, attitudes, and practices on parenting in Romania. Bucharest: UNICEF. http://www.unicef.org/romania/English_KAP.pdf.
Barber, B. K. (2002). Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents. Washington, DC: APA. CrossRef
Barber, B. K., & Harmon, E. L. (2002). Violating the self: Parental psychological control of children and adolescents. In B. K. Barber (Ed.), Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents (pp. 15–52). Washington, DC: APA. CrossRef
Calafeteanu, I. (2006). History of Romanians. Retrieved April 22, 2010, from http://www.roembus.org/english/romanian_links/history_of_romanians.htm.
Conger, R. D., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., Conger, K. J., Simons, R. L., Whitbeck, L. B., et al. (1990). Linking economic hardship to marital quality and instability. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 643–656. CrossRef
Coplan, R. J., & Rubin, K. H. (2010). Social withdrawal and shyness in childhood: History, theories, definitions, and assessments. In R. J. Coplan & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development of shyness and social withdrawal (pp. 3–22). New York: Guilford Press.
Cummings, E. M., Keller, P. S., & Davies, P. T. (2005). Towards a family process model of maternal and paternal depressive symptoms: Exploring multiple relations with child and family functioning. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 479–489. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00368.x. CrossRefPubMed
Enders, C. K. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York: Guilford.
Eurostat. (2012a). Total fertility rate 1960– 2012 (Live births per woman). Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/File:Total_fertility_rate,_1960%E2%80%932012_(live_births_per_woman)_YB14.png.
Eurostat. (2012b). Wages and labour costs. Retrieved from http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Wages_and_labour_costs#Gross_earnings.
Hane, A. H., Cheah, C., Rubin, K. H., & Fox, N. A. (2008). The role of maternal behavior in the relation between shyness and social reticence in early childhood and social withdrawal in middle childhood. Social Development, 17, 795–811. CrossRef
Harkness, S., & Super, C. M. (2002). Culture and parenting. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting, Vol. 2: Biology and ecology of parenting (2nd ed., pp. 253–280). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hart, C. H., DeWolf, M. D., & Burts, D. C. (1993). Parental discipline strategies and preschoolers’ play behavior in playground settings. In C. H. Hart (Ed.), Children on playgrounds: Research perspectives and applications (pp. 271–313). Albany: State University of New York Press.
Hart, C. H., Yang, C., Nelson, L. J., Robinson, C. C., Olsen, J. A., Nelson, D. A., et al. (2000). Peer acceptance in early childhood and subtypes of socially withdrawn behavior in China, Russia, and the United States. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24, 73–81. doi: 10.1080/016502500383494. CrossRef
Herman, E. (2012a). Rural employment in the context of Romanian regional development. Annals of the Constantin Brancusi University of Targu Jiu, Economy Series, 3, 131–140.
Herman, E. (2012b). Romanian employment in the urban and rural areas. In Proceedings of the 8th administration and public management international conference. http://www.confcamp.ase.ro/2012/pdf/Section2/21.pdf.
International Monetary Fund. (2012). Romania: Fifth review under the stand- by arrangement- staff report. IMF Country Report No. 12/157.
Keller, H. (2012). Cross-cultural psychology: Taking people, contexts, and situations seriously. In J. Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 116–131). NY: Oxford.
Kline, R. B. (2010). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford.
Lansford, J. E. (2012). Cross-cultural and cross-national parenting perspectives. In V. Malhomes & R. B. King (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of poverty and child development (pp. 656–677). NY: Oxford.
Laurin, J. C., Joussemet, M., Tremblay, R. E., & Boivin, M. (2015). Early forms of controlling parenting and the development of childhood anxiety. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(11), 3279–3292. CrossRef
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus user’s guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
Olsen, S. F., Yang, C. M., Hart, C. H., Robinson, C. C., Wu, P., Nelson, D. A., et al. (2002). Maternal psychological control and preschool children’s behavioral outcomes in China, Russia, and the United States. In B. K. Barber (Ed.), Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents (pp. 235–262). Washington, DC: APA. doi: 10.1037/10422-008. CrossRef
Robila, M. (2002). The impact of financial strain on adolescents’ psychological functioning in Romania: The role of family processes. (Doctoral dissertation, Syracuse University, 2002). Dissertation Abstracts International, 63, 3376-A.
Robila, M. (2004). Child development and family functioning within the Romanian context. In M. Robila (Ed.), Families in Eastern Europe (pp. 141–154). London: Elsevier. CrossRef
Robila, M., & Krishnakumar, A. (2006). The impact of maternal depression and parenting behaviors on adolescents’ psychological functioning in Romania. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15, 71–82. doi: 10.1007/s10826-005-9009-6.
Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W., & Parker, J. G. (1998). Peer interactions, relationships, and groups. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 619–700). New York: Wiley.
Rubin, K. H., Burgess, K. B., & Coplan, R. J. (2002a). Social withdrawal and shyness. In P. K. Smith & C. H. Hart (Eds.), Handbook of childhood social development (pp. 329–352). Oxford: Blackwell.
Rubin, K. H., Burgess, K. B., Kennedy, A. E., & Stewart, S. L. (2003). Social withdrawal in childhood. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Child psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 372–406). New York: Guilford.
Rubin, K. H., Coplan, R. J., Fox, N. A., & Calkins, S. D. (1995). Emotionality, emotion regulation, and preschoolers’ social adaptation. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 49–62. CrossRef
Rubin, K. H., Nelson, L. J., Hastings, P., & Asendorpf, J. (1999). The transaction between parents’ perceptions of their children’s shyness and their parenting styles. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23, 937–957. CrossRef
Stone, G., Buehler, C., & Barber, B. K. (2002). Interparental conflict, parental psychological control, and youth problem behavior. In B. K. Barber (Ed.), Intrusive parenting: How psychological control affects children and adolescents (pp. 53–953). Washington, DC: APA. CrossRef
The World Bank. (2012). Romania. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/romania/overview.
Walper, S., & Silbereisen, R. K. (1994). Economic hardship in Polish and German families: Some consequences for adolescents. In R. K. Silbereisen & E. Tdot (Eds.), Adolescence in context: The interplay of family, school, peers, and work in adjustment (pp. 125–148). New York: Springer.
Zamfir, C., Postill, K., & Stan, R. (2001). Poverty in Romania [Electronic version]. Retrieved Nov 5, 2007, from http://www.caspis.ro/downloads/poverty_in_romania1.pdf.
- Economic Pressure, Individual and Family Processes, and Children’s Reticence in Romanian Families
Susanne Olsen Roper
Larry J. Nelson
Jeremy B. Yorgason
Franklin O. Poulsen
- Springer US