Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
This study aimed to establish potential mechanisms through which economic disadvantage contributes to the development of young children’s internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 3 years were collected in a total of 2,169 families participating in the Generation R Study. The observed physical home environment, the provision of learning materials in the home, maternal depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and harsh disciplining practices were all analyzed as potential mediators of the association between economic disadvantage and children’s internalizing and externalizing problem scores. Findings from structural equation modeling showed that for both internalizing and externalizing problems, the mechanisms underlying the effect of economic disadvantage included maternal depressive symptoms, along with parenting stress and harsh disciplining. For internalizing but not for externalizing problem scores, the lack of provision of learning materials in the home was an additional mechanism explaining the effect of economic disadvantage. The current results suggest that interventions that focus solely on raising income levels may not adequately address problems in the family processes that emerge as a result of economic disadvantage. Policies to improve the mental health of mothers with young children but also their home environments are needed to change the economic gradient in child behavior.
Abidin, R. R. (1983). Parenting stress index-manual. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.
Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for ASEBA preschool forms & profiles. Burlington: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth and Families.
Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Weighted least squares estimation with missing data. Technical Report, Retreived from http://statmodel.com/download/GstrucMissingRevision.pdf.
Belle, D., & Doucet, J. (2003). Poverty, inequality, and discrimination as sources of depression among U.S. women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 27, 101–113. CrossRef
Bor, W., Najman, J. M., Andersen, M. J., O’Callaghan, M., Williams, G. M., & Behrens, B. C. (1997). The relationship between low family income and psychological disturbance in young children: an Australian longitudinal study. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 664–675. PubMedCrossRef
Bradley, R. H. (1993). Children's home environments, health, behavior, and intervention efforts: a review using the HOME inventory as a marker measure. Genetic Social and General Psychology Monographs, 119, 437–490.
Bradley, R. H. (1994). The Home Inventory: review and reflections. Advances in Child Development and Behavior, 25, 241–288.
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park: Sage.
Caldwell, B. M., & Bradley, R. H. (1984). Home observation for measurement of the environment. Little Rock: University of Arkansas.
Caminada, K., & Goudswaard, K. (2001). International trends in income inequality and social policy. International Tax and Public Finance, 8, 395–415. CrossRef
Conger, R. D., & Elder, G. H. (1994). Families in troubled times: Adapting to change in rural America. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Conger, R. D., & Conger, K. J. (2002). Resilience in Midwestern families: Selected findings from the first decade of a prospective, longitudinal study. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 361–373. CrossRef
Costello, E. J., Compton, S. N., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Relationships between poverty and psychopathology: a natural experiment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 2023–2029.
De Beurs, E. (2004). Brief symptom inventory-manual. Leiden, The Netherlands.
De Brock, A. J. L. L., Vermulst, A. A., Gerris, J. R. M., & Abidin, R. R. (1992). Nijmeegse Ouderlijke Stress Index (NOSI)-manual. Lisse: Swets en Zeitlinger.
Derogatis, L. R. (1993). Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): Administration, scoring and procedures-manual, 3rd. edition. Minneapolis, MN, USA.
Goodman, S. H., & Brumley, H. E. (1990). Schizophrenic and depressed mothers: relational deficits in parenting. Developmental Psychology, 26, 31–39. CrossRef
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. CrossRef
Jaddoe, V. W., van Duijn, C. M., van der Heijden, A. J., Mackenbach, J. P., Moll, H. A., Steegers, E. A., … Hofman, A. (2010). The Generation R Study: Design and cohort update 2010. European Journal of Epidemiology, 25, 823–841.
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Martin, M. J., Conger, R. D., Schofield, T. J., Dogan, S. J., Widaman, K. F., Donnellan, M. B., & Neppl, T. K. (2010). Evaluation of the interactionist model of socioeconomic status and problem behavior: a developmental cascade across generations. Development and Psychopathology, 22, 695–713. PubMedCrossRef
McLeod, J. D., & Shanahan, M. J. (1993). Poverty, parenting, and children’s mental health. American Sociological Review, 58, 351–366. CrossRef
Moss, N. (2000). Socioeconomic disparities in health in the US: an agenda for action. Social Science & Medicine, 51, 1627–1638. CrossRef
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2007). Mplus user’s guide, 5th edition. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
NICHD. (2005). Duration and developmental timing of poverty and children’s cognitive and social development from birth through third grade. Child Development, 76, 795–810. CrossRef
Rijlaarsdam, J., Stevens, G. W. J. M., Van der Ende, J., Arends, L. R., Hofman, A., Jaddoe, V. W. V., … Tiemeier, H. (2012). A brief observational instrument for the assessment of infant home environment: Development and psychometric testing. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research.
Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Finkelhor, D., Moore, D. W., & Runyan, D. (1998). Identification of child maltreatment with the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales: development and psychometric data for a national sample of American parents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22, 249–270. CrossRef
Zeanah, C. H., Boris, N. W., & Larrieu, J. A. (1997). Infant development and developmental risk: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 165–178.
- Economic Disadvantage and Young Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Mechanisms of Risk
Gonneke W. J. M. Stevens
Jan van der Ende
Vincent W. V. Jaddoe
Johan P. Mackenbach
Frank C. Verhulst
- Springer US