For clinically referred children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) several early indicators have been described. However, knowledge is lacking on early markers of less severe variants of ASD and ADHD from the general population. The aim of the present study is to identify early indicators of high risk groups for ASD and ADHD problems based on routine data from community pediatric services between infancy and age four. Data are from 1,816 participants who take part in Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a longitudinal study. Information on early developmental factors was extracted from charts of routine Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH) visits. To assess ASD and ADHD problems, respectively, we used the Children’s Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), filled out by parents three times between the ages of 11 and 17. Note that these are parent ratings and not diagnostic instruments performed by trained clinicians. Male gender, low birth weight, low level of education of the mother, social, behavioral, language, psychomotor and eating problems significantly predicted ASD problems (odds ratios (OR) between 1.34 and 2.41). ADHD problems were also predicted by male gender and low level of education of the mother and by maternal smoking during pregnancy, good gross motor skills in first year , early attention and hyperactivity problems, and absence of parent-reported positive behavior (ORs between 1.36 and 1.74). Routine data on early childhood from PCH services are predictive for ASD and ADHD problems in adolescents in the general population. The PCH services are a useful setting to identify high risk groups, and to monitor them subsequently.
Achenbach, T. M., Dumenci, L., & Rescorla, L. A. (2003). DSM-oriented and empirically based approaches to constructing scales from the same item pools. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32, 328–340. PubMed
Arnoudse-Moens, C. S., Weisglas-Kuperus, N., van Goudoever, J. B., & Oosterlaan, J. (2009). Meta-analysis of neurobehavioral outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children. Pediatrics, 124, 717–728. CrossRef
de Bildt, A., Sytema, S., Ketelaars, C., Kraijer, D., Volkmar, F., & Minderaa, R. (2003). Measuring pervasive developmental disorders in children and adolescents with mental retardation: a comparison of two screening instruments used in a study of the total mentally retarded population from a designated area. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 595–605. PubMedCrossRef
Goodlin-Jones, B. L., Tang, K., Liu, J., & Anders, T. F. (2008). Sleep patterns in preschool-age children with autism, developmental delay, and typical development. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 930–938. PubMed
Hartman, C.A., Brunnekreef, J.A., De Sonneville, L.M.J., Buitelaar, J.K., Ormel, J., Minderaa ,, R.B., Hoekstra, P.J., Althaus, M. (2012). Deficient cognitive processing in children with autism spectrum problems from the general population. The TRAILS study. Submitted.
Hattori, J., Ogino, T., Abiru, K., Nakano, K., Oka, M., & Ohtsuka, Y. (2006). Are pervasive developmental disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder distinct disorders? Brain & Development, 28, 371–374. CrossRef
Helverschou, S. B., Bakken, T. L., & Martinsen, H. (2009). The Psychopathology in Autism Checklist (PAC): A pilot study. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders., 3(1), 179–195. CrossRef
Kaufman, J., Bismaher, B., Brent, D. A., Rao, U., Flynn, C., Moreci, P., Williamson, D., & Ryan, N. (1997). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children - Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 980–988. PubMedCrossRef
Kolevzon, A., Gross, R., & Reichenberg, A. (2007). Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism: a review and integration of findings. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 161, 326–333. CrossRef
Lara, C., Fayyad, J., de Graaf, R., Kessler, R. C., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Angermeyer, M., Demytteneare, K., de Girolamo, G., Haro, J. M., Jin, R., Karam, E. G., Lepine, J. P., Mora, M. E., Ormel, J., Posada-Villa, J., & Sampson, N. (2009). Childhood predictors of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 46–54. PubMedCrossRef
Nijmeijer, J. S., Arias-Vasquez, A., Rommelse, N. N., Altink, M. E., Anney, R. J., Asherson, P., Banaschewski, T., Buschgens, C. J., Fliers, E. A., Gill, M., Minderaa, R. B., Poustka, L., Sergeant, J. A., Buitelaar, J. K., Franke, B., Ebstein, R. P., Miranda, A., Mulas, F., Oades, R. D., Roeyers, H., Rothenberger, A., Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Steinhausen, H. C., Faraone, S. V., Hartman, C. A., & Hoekstra, P. J. (2010). Identifying Loci for the Overlap Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Genome-wide QTL Linkage Approach. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 675–685. PubMed
Ozonoff, S., Iosif, A., Baguio, F., Cook, I. C., Hill, M. M., Hutman, T., Rogers, S. J., Rozga, A., & Sangha, S. (2010). A prospective study of the emergence of early behavioral signs of autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 256–266. PubMed
Piven, J. (2002). Genetics of Personality: The Example of the Broad Autism Phenotype. In J. Benjamin, R. P. Ebstein, & R. H. Belmaker (Eds.), Molecular Genetics and the Human Personality (pp. 43–62). Washingtom, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Ploeger, A., Raijmakers, M. E., van der Maas, H. L., & Galis, F. (2010). The association between autism and errors in early embryogenesis: what is the causal mechanism? Biol. Psychiatry, 67, 602–607.
Rogers, S. J., & Vismara, L. A. (2008). Evidence-based comprehensive treatments for early autism. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 8–38. PubMed
Rommelse N. N., Geurts H. M., Franke B., Buitelaar J. K., Hartman C. A. (2011). A review on cognitive and brain endophenotypes that may be common in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and facilitate the search for pleiotropic genes. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1363–1396.
Rose, G. (1992). The strategy of preventive medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., & Lord, C. (2003). ADI-R. Autism diagnostic interview revised. Manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
Schendel, D. E., Autry, A., Wines, R., & Moore, C. (2009). The co-occurrence of autism and birth defects: prevalence and risk in a population-based cohort. Child Neurol: Dev. Med.
Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Charman, T., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., & Baird, G. (2008). Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 921–929. PubMedCrossRef
Stilp, R. L. H., Gernsbacher, M. A., Schweigert, E. K., Arneson, C. L., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2010). Genetic Variance for autism screening items in an unselected sample of toddler-age twins. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 267–276. PubMed
Sung, V., Hiscock, H., Sciberras, E., & Efron, D. (2008). Sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: prevalence and the effect on the child and family. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162, 336–342. CrossRef
Zwaigenbaum, L., Bryson, S., Lord, C., Rogers, S., Carter, A., Carver, L., Chawarska, K., Constantino, J., Dawson, G., Dobkins, K., Fein, D., Iverson, J., Klin, A., Landa, R., Messinger, D., Ozonoff, S., Sigman, M., Stone, W., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Yirmiya, N. (2009). Clinical assessment and management of toddlers with suspected autism spectrum disorder: insights from studies of high-risk infants. Pediatrics, 123, 1383–1391. PubMedCrossRef
- Early Childhood Assessments of Community Pediatric Professionals Predict Autism Spectrum and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problems
- Merlijne Jaspers
Andrea F. de Winter
Jan K. Buitelaar
Frank C. Verhulst
Sijmen A. Reijneveld
Catharina A. Hartman