Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) have been suggested as vulnerability markers for depression and entrenched psychological disorders, respectively. One-hundred-and-fifteen clinically depressed (CDs), previously depressed (PDs), and never depressed individuals completed the DAS, the YSQ, and the Beck Depression Inventory in the index study, and were followed up 9 years later in relation to diagnostic status, depression severity and course of depression. From multiple regression analyses YSQ domain scales emerged as significant predictors of concurrent depression severity in the index study, and depression severity and episodes of Major Depression, 9 years later. A majority of CDs and PDs experienced a recurrent depression over 9 years. The findings indicate that YSQ scales are promising as vulnerability markers for depression and underscore a conceptualisation of depression as a serious disorder due to its highly recurrent course, and highlight the necessity to identify and tackle long-term vulnerability factors.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). DC: Washington.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). DC: Washington.
Andrade, L., Caraveo-Anduaga, J. J., Berglund, P., Bijl, R. V., De Graaf, R., Vollebergh, W., et al. (2003). The epidemiology of major depressive episodes: Results from the International Consortium of Psychiatric Epidemiology (ICPE) Surveys. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 12, 3–21. CrossRefPubMed
Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row.
Beck, A. T. (1987). Cognitive models of depression. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 1, 5–37.
Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford.
Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1987). Beck depression inventory manual. New York: The Psychological Corporation Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). BDI-II: Beck Depression Inventory (2nd ed.). San Antonio, Texas: The Psychological Corporation.
Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Garbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the beck depression inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 77–100. CrossRef
Beevers, C. G., & Miller, I. W. (2004). Depression-related negative cognition: Mood-state and trait dependent properties. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28, 293–307. CrossRef
Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Vol 2. Separation. New York: Basic Books.
Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: Vol. 3. Loss, sadness, and depression. New York: Basic Books.
Cane, D. B., Olinger, L. J., Gotlib, I. H., & Kuiper, N. A. (1986). Factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale in a student population. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 307–309. CrossRef
Dykman, B. M., & Johll, M. (1998). Dysfunctional attitudes and vulnerability to depressive symptoms: A 14-week longitudinal study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22, 337–352. CrossRef
First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (1997). The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, Axis I disorders–clinician version (SCID-CV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Halvorsen, M., Wang, C. E., Richter, J., Myrland, I., Pedersen, S. K., Eisemann, M., & Waterloo, K. (2009). Early maladaptive schemas, temperament and character traits in clinically depressed and previously depressed subjects. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. [Epub ahead of print].
Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Miller, N., & Haeffel, G. J. (2004). Cognitive vulnerability-stress theories of depression: Examining affective specificity in the prediction of depression versus anxiety in three prospective studies. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28, 309–345. CrossRef
Harris, A. E., & Curtin, L. (2002). Parental perceptions, early maladaptive schemas, and depressive symptoms in young adults. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 405–416. CrossRef
Hoffart, A., Sexton, H., Hedley, L. M., Wang, C. E., Holthe, H., Haugum, J. A., et al. (2005). The structure of maladaptive schemas: A confirmatory factor analysis and a psychometric evaluation of factor-derived scales. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29, 627–644. CrossRef
Judd, L. L. (1997). The clinical course of unipolar major depressive disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 989–991. PubMed
Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Koretz, D., Merikangas, K. R., et al. (2003). The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: Results from the national Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Journal of American Medical Association, 289, 3095–3105. CrossRef
Kovacs, M., & Beck, A. T. (1978). Maladaptive cognitive structures in depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 525–533. PubMed
Lee, C. W., Taylor, G., & Dunn, J. (1999). Factor structure of the schema questionnaire in a large clinical sample. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 23, 441–451. CrossRef
Norman, W. H., Miller, I. W., & Dow, M. G. (1988). Characteristics of depressed patients with elevated levels of dysfunctional cognitions. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12, 39–52. CrossRef
Olinger, L. J., Kuiper, N. A., & Shaw, B. F. (1987). Dysfunctional attitudes and stressful life events: An interactive model of depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11, 25–40. CrossRef
Oliver, J. M., & Baumgart, E. P. (1985). The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale: Psychometric properties and relation to depression in an unselected adult population. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 161–167. CrossRef
Otto, M. W., Teachman, B. A., Cohen, L. S., Soares, C. N., Vitonis, A. F., & Harlow, B. L. (2007). Dysfunctional attitudes and episodes of major depression: Predictive validity and temporal stability in never-depressed, depressed, and recovered women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 475–483. CrossRefPubMed
Peselow, E. D., Robins, C., Block, P., Barouche, F., & Fieve, R. R. (1990). Dysfunctional attitudes in depressed patients before and after clinical treatment and in normal control subjects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 439–444. PubMed
Power, M. J., Katz, R., McGuffin, P., Duggan, C. F., Lam, D. H., & Beck, A. T. (1994). Dysfunctinal Attitude Scale (DAS). A comparison of forms A and B and proposals for a new subscale version. Journal of Research in Personality, 28, 263–276. CrossRef
Reda, M. A., Carpiniello, B., Secchiaroli, L., & Blanco, S. (1985). Thinking, depression, and antidepressants: Modified and unmodified beliefs during treatment with amitryptiline. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 9, 135–143. CrossRef
Riso, L. P., Froman, S. E., Raouf, M., Gable, P., Maddux, R. E., Turini-Santorelli, N., et al. (2006). The long-term stability of early maladaptive schemas. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30, 515–529. CrossRef
Schmidt, N. B., Joiner, T. E., Young, J. E., & Telch, M. J. (1995). The schema questionnaire: Investigation of psychometric properties and the hierarchical structure of a measure of maladaptive schemas. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19, 295–301. CrossRef
Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford Press.
Wang, C. E., Brennen, T., & Holte, A. (2005). Mechanisms of recurrent depression: A cognitive battle model and some preliminary results. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 12, 427–442. CrossRef
Weissman, A. (1979). Dysfunctional attitudes scale: A validation study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Weissman, A. N., & Beck, A. T. (1978). Development and validation of the dysfunctional attitudes scale: A preliminary investigation. Toronto, Canada: Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Education Research Association.
Young, J. E. (1990). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.
Young, J. E. (1999). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach (rev. ed.). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.
Young, J. E., & Brown, G. (1990). Young schema questionnaire. New York: Cognitive Therapy Centre of New York.
Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York: The Guilford Press.
Zuroff, D. C., Igreja, I., & Mongrain, M. (1990). Dysfunctional attitudes, dependency, and self-criticism as predictors of depressive mood states: A 12-month longitudinal study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 315–326. CrossRef
- Dysfunctional Attitudes and Early Maladaptive Schemas as Predictors of Depression: A 9-Year Follow-Up Study
Catharina E. Wang
- Springer US