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01-12-2014 | Methodology | Uitgave 1/2014 Open Access

Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 1/2014

Dynamic 3D shape of the plantar surface of the foot using coded structured light: a technical report

Tijdschrift:
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research > Uitgave 1/2014
Auteurs:
Ali K Thabet, Emanuele Trucco, Joaquim Salvi, Weijie Wang, Rami J Abboud
Belangrijke opmerkingen

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1757-1146-7-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

AKT conducted the main research, design, and testing of the system. RJA provided support on the clinical aspects of the study and was the main party in securing funding. ET and JS supplied advice, as well as coding tools and testing tools for the computational side of the project. WW carried out the relevant statistical analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Background

The foot provides a crucial contribution to the balance and stability of the musculoskeletal system, and accurate foot measurements are important in applications such as designing custom insoles/footwear. With better understanding of the dynamic behavior of the foot, dynamic foot reconstruction techniques are surfacing as useful ways to properly measure the shape of the foot. This paper presents a novel design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input.

Methods

Engineering and clinical tests were carried out to test the accuracy and repeatability of the system. Accuracy experiments involved imaging a planar surface from different orientations and elevations and measuring the fitting errors of the data to a plane. Repeatability experiments were done using reconstructions from 27 different subjects, where for each one both right and left feet were reconstructed in static and dynamic conditions over two different days.

Results

The static accuracy of the system was found to be 0.3 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.4 mm (static case) and 2.8 mm (dynamic case).

Conclusion

The results obtained in the experiments show positive accuracy and repeatability results when compared to current literature. The design also shows to be superior to the systems available in the literature in several factors. Further studies need to be done to quantify the reliability of the system in clinical environments.

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Extra materiaal
Additional file 1: Supplementary material.(PDF 657 KB)
13047_2013_589_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 1
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Authors’ original file for figure 2
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Authors’ original file for figure 9
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Authors’ original file for figure 10
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Authors’ original file for figure 11
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Literatuur
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