Swipe om te navigeren naar een ander artikel
Prior research has demonstrated that both adolescent gang affiliation and perceived delinquent peer association are important predictors of individual offending. A crucial question is whether and how youth gang affiliation contributes to a spectrum of criminal acts above and beyond the influence of associating with delinquent peers. Using 14 waves of data from the Rochester Youth Developmental Study, an ongoing longitudinal panel study aimed at understanding the causes and consequences of delinquency and drug use in an urban sample of adolescents, the current study employs a relatively new modeling technique—dual trajectory analysis—to illustrate the dynamic relationship between these two measures among 666 male youth. The results suggest that the two measures, while overlapping, may constitute distinct concepts that operate in different ways. The most convincing evidence of gang effects, above and beyond the influence of perceived peer delinquency, is for violent behavior and by extension police arrest. Our findings contribute to developmental research and provide information that informs future gang control efforts.
Log in om toegang te krijgen
Met onderstaand(e) abonnement(en) heeft u direct toegang:
Agnew, R. (1991). The interactive effects of peer variables on delinquency. Criminology, 29, 45–72. CrossRef
Allison, P. D. (2002). Missing data: Quantitative applications in the social sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York, NY: Norton.
Ariza, J., Cebulla, A., Aldridge, J., Shute, J., & Ross, A. (2014). Proximal adolescent outcomes of gang membership in England and Wales. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 51, 168–199. CrossRef
Battin, S. R., Hill, K. G., Abbott, R. D., Catalano, R. F., & Hawkins, J. D. (1998). The contribution of gang membership to delinquency beyond delinquent friends. Criminology, 36, 93–115. CrossRef
Bernburg, J. G., Krohn, M. D., & Rivera, C. J. (2006). Official labeling, criminal embeddedness, and subsequent delinquency: A longitudinal test of labeling theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43, 67–88. CrossRef
Conger, R. D. (1991). Adolescence and youth: Psychological development in a changing world (4th ed.). New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.
Craig, W. M., Vitaro, F., Gagnon, L., & Tremblay, R. E. (2002). The road to gang membership: Characteristics of male gang and nongang members from ages 10 to 14. Social Development, 11, 53–68. CrossRef
Curry, G. D. (2000). Self-reported gang involvement and officially recorded delinquency. Criminology, 38, 1253–1274. CrossRef
Decker, S. H., & Curry, G. D. (2000). Addressing key features of gang membership: Measuring the involvement of young members. Journal of Criminal Justice, 28, 473–482. CrossRef
Decker, S. H., Katz, C. M., & Webb, V. J. (2008). Understanding the black box of gang organization: Implications for involvement in violent crime, drug sales, and violent victimization. Crime and Delinquency, 54, 153–172. CrossRef
Decker, S. H., & Lauritsen, J. (2002). Leaving the gang. In C. R. Huff (Ed.), Gangs in American (3rd ed., pp. 51–70). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. CrossRef
Decker, S. H., Melde, C., & Pyrooz, D. C. (2013). What do we know about gangs and gang members and where do we go from here? Justice Quarterly, 30, 369–402. CrossRef
Decker, S. H., Pyrooz, D. C., Sweeten, G., & Moule, R. K. (2014). Validating self-nomination in gang research: Assessing differences in gang embeddedness across non-, current, and former gang members. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 30, 577–598. CrossRef
Decker, S. H., & Van Winkle, B. (1996). Life in the gang: Family, friends and violence. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Dong, B., Gibson, C. L., & Krohn, D. M. (2015). Gang membership in a developmental and life-course perspective. In S. H. Decker & D. C. Pyrooz (Eds.), The handbook of gangs (pp. 78–97). London: Wiley. CrossRef
Downes, D. M. (1966). The delinquent solution. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Esbensen, F. A., & Deschenes, E. P. (1998). A multisite examination of youth gang membership: Does gender matter? Criminology, 36, 799–827. CrossRef
Esbensen, F. A., Deschenes, E. P., & Winfree, L. T. (1999). Differences between gang girls and gang boys: Results from a multisite survey. Youth and Society, 31, 27–53. CrossRef
Esbensen, F. A., Winfree, L. T., He, N., & Taylor, T. J. (2001). Youth gangs and definitional issues: When is a gang a gang, and why does it matter? Crime and Delinquency, 47, 105–130. CrossRef
Gordon, R. A., Lahey, B. B., Kawai, E., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Farrington, D. (2004). Antisocial behavior and youth gang membership: Selection and socialization. Criminology, 42, 55–87. CrossRef
Hallsworth, S., & Young, T. (2008). Gang talk and gang talkers: A critique. Crime, Media, Culture, 4, 175–195. CrossRef
Hennigan, K. M., Maxson, C. L., Sloane, D. C., Kolnick, K. A., & Vindel, F. (2014). Identifying high-risk youth for secondary gang prevention. Journal of Crime and Justice, 37, 104–128. CrossRef
Hill, K. G., Howell, J. C., Hawkins, J. D., & Battin-Pearson, S. R. (1999). Childhood risk factors for adolescent gang membership: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36, 300–322. CrossRef
Horowitz, R. (1983). Honor and the American dream: Culture and identity in a Chicano community. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Howell, J. C. (2012). Gangs in America’s communities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Howell, J. C., & Egley, A. (2005). Moving risk factors into developmental theories of gang membership. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 3, 334–354. CrossRef
Huizinga, D. (1996). The influence of delinquent peers, gangs, and co-offending on violence. Washington, DC: Official of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Kennedy, D. M. (2009). Gangs and public policy: Constructing and deconstructing gang databases. Criminology and Public Policy, 8, 711–716. CrossRef
Klein, M. W. (1995). The American street gang: Its nature, prevalence, and control. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Klein, M. W., & Maxson, C. L. (2006). Street gang patterns and policies. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Krohn, M. D. (1986). The web of conformity: A network approach to the explanation of delinquent behavior. Social Problems, 33, 581–593. CrossRef
Krohn, M. D., & Thornberry, T. P. (2008). Longitudinal perspectives on adolescent street gangs. In A. Liberman (Ed.), The long view of crime: A synthesis of longitudinal research (pp. 128–160). New York, NY: Springer. CrossRef
Lien, I. (2002). The pain of crime and gang mentality. Oslo: The Norwegian Institute of Urban and Regional Research.
Melde, C., & Esbensen, F. A. (2011). Gang membership as a turning point in the life course. Criminology, 49, 513–552. CrossRef
Melde, C., & Esbensen, F. A. (2014). The relative impact of gang status transitions: Identifying the mechanisms of change in delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 51, 349–376. CrossRef
Meldrum, R. C., & Boman, J. H. (2013). Similarities and differences between perceptions of peer delinquency, peer self-reported delinquency, and respondent delinquency: An analysis of friendship dyads. Journal of Criminal Justice, 41, 395–406. CrossRef
Miller, W. B. (1982). Crime by youth gangs and groups in the United States. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Miller, J. (2001). One of the guys: Girls, gangs and gender. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Moore, J. W. (1978). Homeboys: Gangs, drugs and prison in the barrios of Los Angeles. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Moore, J. W. (1991). Going down to the barrio: Homeboys and homegirls in change. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Moore, J. W., & Vigil, J. D. (1989). Chicano gangs: Group norms and individual factors related to adult criminality. Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies, 18, 31–42.
Morash, M. (1983). Gangs, groups and delinquency. The British Journal of Criminology, 23, 309–335.
Nagin, D. (2005). Group-based modeling of development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. CrossRef
Papachristos, A. V. (2009). Murder by structure: Dominance relations and the social structure of gang homicide. American Journal of Sociology, 115, 74–128. CrossRef
Pyrooz, D. C. (2013). Gangs, criminal offending, and an inconvenient truth. Criminology and Public Policy, 12, 427–436. CrossRef
Pyrooz, D. C. (2014a). From colors and guns to caps and gowns? The effects of gang membership on educational attainment. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 51, 56–87. CrossRef
Pyrooz, D. C. (2014b). “From your first cigarette to your last dyin’ day”: The patterning of gang membership in the life-course. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 30, 349–372. CrossRef
Pyrooz, D. C., Sweeten, G., & Piquero, A. R. (2013). Continuity and change in gang membership and gang embeddedness. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50, 239–271. CrossRef
Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. CrossRef
Raudenbush, S. W. (2005). How do we study what happen next? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 602, 131–144. CrossRef
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Short, J. F., & Strodtbeck, F. L. (1965). Group process and gang delinquency. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Sweeten, G. (2012). Scaling criminal offending. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 28, 533–557. CrossRef
Thornberry, T. P., & Krohn, M. D. (2005). Applying interactional theory to the explanation of continuity and change in antisocial behavior. In D. P. Farrington (Ed.), Integrated developmental and life-course theories of offending (pp. 183–210). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishing.
Thornberry, T. P., Krohn, M. D., Lizotte, A. J., & Chard-Wierschem, D. (1993). The role of juvenile gangs in facilitating delinquent behavior. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30, 55–87. CrossRef
Thornberry, T. P., Krohn, M. D., Lizotte, A. J., Smith, C. A., & Tobin, K. (2003). Gangs and delinquency in developmental perspective. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Tita, G. E., & Ridgeway, G. (2007). The impact of gang formation on local patterns of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 42, 275–308. CrossRef
Vigil, J. D. (1988). Barrio gangs: Street life and identity in Southern California. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Warr, M. (1993). Age, peers, and delinquency. Criminology, 31, 17–40. CrossRef
Warr, M. (1996). Organization and instigation in delinquent groups. Criminology, 34, 11–37. CrossRef
Warr, M. (2002). Companions in crime: The social aspects of criminal conduct. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Young, J. T. N., Rebellon, C. J., Barnes, J. C., & Weerman, F. M. (2014). Unpacking the black box of peer similarity in deviance: Understanding the mechanisms linking personal behavior, peer behavior, and perceptions. Criminology, 52, 60–86. CrossRef
Young, J. T. N., Rebellon, C. J., Barnes, J. C., & Weerman, F. M. (2015). What do alternative measures of peer behavior tell us? Examining the discriminant validity of multiple methods of measuring peer deviance and the implications for etiological models. Justice Quarterly, 32, 626–652. CrossRef
- Dual Trajectories of Gang Affiliation and Delinquent Peer Association During Adolescence: An Examination of Long-Term Offending Outcomes
Marvin D. Krohn
- Springer US