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Within the light of the DSM-5, the current study examined (1) how many and which children with a DSM-IV classification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) fulfill the DSM-5 symptom-criteria, and (2) whether children who did and did not meet DSM-5 symptom-criteria and children with social anxiety disorder (SAD) can be differentiated from each other based on ASD symptomatology. In total, 90 referred children with a DSM-IV classification of high-functioning ASD, and 21 referred children with SAD participated (age range 7–17 years). ASD-symptoms were examined with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Children’s Social Behavior Questionnaire. It was found that 30 % of the ASD sample did not meet DSM-5 symptom-criteria for ASD, mainly because they failed to meet the DSM-5 criteria of the repetitive domain. Children with ASD who did and did not meet DSM-5 symptom-criteria differed on the repetitive domain, while children with ASD (according to DSM-IV and DSM-5 symptom criteria) had higher scores on the social-communication domain than children with SAD. Findings suggest a continuum of ASD-symptoms in the DSM-5 for children with SAD, social communication disorder and ASD. More research is needed to examine how these three disorders differ with respect to their etiology, neuropsychological profiles and clinical characteristics.
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American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Hrdlicka, M., & Dudova, I. (2013). Controversies in autism: Is a broader model of social disorders needed? Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 7, 1–9. CrossRef
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- DSM-IV Versus DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder in Childhood: Similarities and Differences
Francisca J. A. van Steensel
Susan M. Bögels
Esther I. de Bruin
- Springer US